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Old January 14th, 2018, 09:23 AM   #1

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Kidnapping free people of color into slavery across the Americas?


*Warning long post ahead, be prepared...

Have you read and seen ‘Twelve Years a Slave’?

Quite a tale, isn’t it? I do have some doubts, however, about the accuracy of his story, as with slave narratives in general, but I suppose that topic is too broad to be discussed here. How much was Northup’s narrative influenced by his ghost-writer and by the preconceptions of his potential northern readers? Perhaps the biggest mystery of Solomon Northup is the conspiracy theory, that is how he even ended up in slavery; there was a speculation that Northup partly agreed to be sold by Merrill and Russell, his ‘employers’, and that they were to ‘rescue’ him and share the profits, but ended up betraying him instead. I’m also puzzled as to why it took Norhup over a decade to escape slavery. Northup claimed that he didn’t reveal his background to anyone out of fear that he would suffer consequences for it and that it would plunge him even deeper into the depths of slavery. Arguably that may be the case with Edwin Epps and John Tibeats, but maybe not with William Ford. If Northup described Ford’s personality accurately, wouldn’t he have seemed like a nice enough guy for Northup to reveal his background to and seek assistance from? I don’t know about you, but if I found myself in Northup’s situation, I would do absolutely anything to fix my situation. Regardless of how Northup ended up in slavery, there are enough official historical sources to confirm that most of the details of Northup’s narrative are accurate and authentic.

Solomon Northup is probably the best known kidnap victim in the history of slavery (at least in the New World).
His story is probably the only slave narrative to be told through the perspective of a non-slave, and is rich in verifiable details describing life in 1840s Red River Country Louisiana.
Yet his experience of kidnapping was by no means unique or isolated.

Carol Wilson writes in her book ‘Freedom at Risk’:

“The kidnapping of free blacks in pre-Civil War America has been a topic frequently noted by scholars but not examined in any detail. This omission may be partly explained by the fact that while slavery has long been a subject of intense interest for both scholars and the general public, comparatively less work has focused on free blacks.”

‘Freedom at Risk’ is probably currently the only such book entirely dedicated to the topic of kidnapping free blacks, along with the book ‘Solomon Northup’s Kindred’ by David Fiske, who is probably the best scholar of Solomon Northup yet, but Fiske makes it clear that his book was meant to build upon ‘Freedom at Risk’. All other books on American Slavery only breifly mention kidnapping.

Albert Bushnell Hart writes in his book ‘Slavery and Abolition, 1831-1841’:

“Whether or not it was the desire of the free negro to support himself and his family respectably, he rarely had the opportunity; dislike and suspicion were against him everywhere, and the moment he got away from the place where he was known he found himself in danger of kidnapping. For it must not be forgotten that if a slave could become free, a free negro could also become a slave, and that without fault or neglect on his own part. This reversion to slavery came about in many different methods, all acting steadily and effectively. In the first place, persons who had been set free for years and had no reason to suppose that they were anything else, might be seized upon for defects in the legal process of manumission. There were instances where successful suits were brought for the possession of families who had lived in freedom unmolested for thirty years. The second method was by kidnapping, which was frequent in the north and south throughout the slavery period. One of the most striking cases, that of Peter Still, was revealed in all its enormity by the return of the stolen person to Philadelphia after more than twenty years' captivity. Of course, a grown man or woman thus kidnapped might find means of communicating with his friends; but Solomon Northup was in bondage twelve years before he could attract the attention of the legal authorities to his undoubted claim to freedom. In the south the offence was a little more dangerous, because it was closely akin to slave stealing, which was one of the most atrocious of all crimes against slave property. A still more common case was the sale of free negroes for their jail fees, a thing which could hardly be believed but for the accumulation of evidence. In several of the southern states a negro who incurred a fine which he could not pay might be sold as a slave. In Maryland a free negro under certain circumstances might be sold as a perpetual slave, simply for the offence of coming into the state. The practice attracted great attention in the north because of the revelation in 1829 that it was steadily going on in the District of Columbia. The practice of the District authorities was to arrest any colored person who could not give an account of himself, to advertise him, and, if nobody appeared to establish a claim, to sell him in order to reimburse the jailers their fees. In five cases reported the marshal had not only recovered his fees, but about three hundred dollars more. The desperate injustice of condemning a man to slavery because of a failure to prove him a slave was one of the most effective arguments of the abolitionists. The effects of these methods of re-enslavement are hard to calculate; but for some cause there was a steady diminution of free negroes in several southern states. Either free negroes could not keep up the natural increase of their race or they were forced back into slavery.”

As was explained by professor Hart above, free people of color could be enslaved in variety of ways, illegally as well as legally, in the antebellum United States.

Blacks, both free and enslaved, were kidnapped and sold as slaves even in colonial times, but the practice increased during the Nineteenth Century after the invention of the cotton gin in 1793, the closing of the African Slave Trade in 1807, and opening of land in the Southwest after the Louisiana Purchase, all of which contributed to raising the price of slaves exponentially, reaching an all time high by the time of the Civil War, making kidnapping very profitable. The Nineteenth Century was also when abolitionism grew from being a small group of eccentrics to a national moral crusade, which likely was responsible for the increase in reports of and efforts to combat kidnapping, since abolitionists were the only assistance towards black rights during the antebellum period.

Since kidnapping was a crime in all states, all but the most brazen kidnappers made every attempt to conceal their crimes. Thus the precise number of kidnap victims can never be known, but probably unknown hundreds of free people of color disappeared into slavery through this evil practice.

Even foreigners were not immune to being enslaved in the United States. Probably the best example of this is the figure of John Glasgow, who was featured in the ex-slave John Brown’s narrative ‘Slave Life in Georgia’.

A summary of the story of John Glasgow can be read here:

http://the-history-girls.blogspot.co...tanya.html?m=1

John Brown isn’t sure of what happened to Glasgow after his own escape. Though in all likelihood, Glasgow would have probably lived the remainder of his life enslaved, especially with Glasgow’s crippled leg limiting his physical mobility.

The story of John Glasgow best demonstrates that American Slavery put not only free colored people in America at Risk, but colored people across the Atlantic World. I do have doubts as to whether John Glasgow was a fictional creation of John Brown’s ghost-writer. Such a tale, however, would have been entirely possible under the Negro Seamen Acts as well as by unscrupulous captains aiming to make a quick profit.

Please read the Introduction of the following article:

Free People of Color - Atlantic History - Oxford Bibliographies

Every slave society in the Americas had free colored populations, since all such regimes accepted the legitimacy of manumission from the very beginning, and it was the norm of Roman law and was deeply embedded in Christian morality.
Free colored populations were mostly made up of manumitted as well as the descendants of manumitted slaves. In many places across Latin America, the free colored population even outnumbered the slave population, whereas in the United States the free colored population was always only a fraction of the total colored population. This contrast was likely due to differences in the cultural as well as legal attitudes towards blacks, which Americans were generally more prejudiced towards compared to Latin Americans.

Take Brazil, the country in the New World with the largest number of African imports, the longest running slavery, the last country to abolish slavery in the Americas (and probably the Western World for that matter?), and the holder of the largest population of African descent outside of Africa.

In Brazil, when the first national census was conducted in 1872, just a year after the passage of the Law of Free Birth, some 40 percent of the population was composed of free blacks and mulattoes, which is truly remarkable for a society in which slavery is associated with race. Additionally, Brazil was a nation in which people of color comprised the majority of all inhabitants at nearly 60 percent.
This is a huge contrast to the United States 1860 population census, in which free blacks composed a mere 1.5 percent of the population.

Now, back to the topic of enslaving free people.

Kidnapping free people of color was quite well known among scholars of American Slavery and abolitionists of the 19th century. Books on American slavery frequently note kidnapping.

However, while there is much written about kidnapping free blacks during the 19th century, I have found close to nothing about this subject in Colonial America as well as other slave societies in the Americas. I have read several books on slavery in Latin America, the Caribbean and Brazil, which frequently include a chapter of free people of color, yet in none of them have I been able to find information on kidnapping, slave stealing or other forms of enslaving freemen. Even in books on overall New World Slavery, any mentioning of kidnapping is confined to the post-revolution United States.

The only information I have been able find on reducing free people to slavery in Colonial America is this article:

https://journals.psu.edu/phj/article...ad/24618/24387

And from the book: ‘Suspect Relations: Sex, Race, and Resistance in Colonial North Carolina’ by Kirsten Fischer, who writes that:

“Some white apprentices also appeared in court to complain that they were held beyond their time of service, but free people of color had an added burden of proof: they had to persuade the court of their status as free-born...Free blacks without family or friends to vouch for their status were especially vulnerable to being kidnapped and enslaved. In 1726, one Peter Van Trump from New York petitioned the North Carolina court. He claimed he was a free man who routinely hired himself out as a sailor, but that one captain, promising to set sail for Europe, landed in North Carolina instead. Van Trump was put ashore and sold and since then had been “held & used” as a slave by Edmund Porter (one of the colony’s wealthiest men). The court dismissed Van Trump’s petition the following year and he remained the property of Porter. Similarly, William Derry complained that he had been freed by his former master’s will in Virginia, but in 1737 one Godfrey Hunt had “come in the night” and “in a Barbarous manner Seized [Derry] in his own dwelling house” and then sold him to a William Taylor who transported Derry to North Carolina and held him there as a slave. Given the chronic danger of enslavement, free blacks who were separated from their families carefully preserved knowledge of their genealogy. Ruth Tilley, for example, committed to memory the story of her mother, Ann Tillett, a free woman who bore Ruth in 1743 at the house of one Timothy Mead. Ruth stayed at Mead household until he died, after which she was unlawfully sold to a “distant Merchant” and then to many different masters, each, she said, “getting rid of her, as soon as they could, on hearing of her story and Resolution to regain her Liberty.” Tillett eventually “made her escape and came back to her native country”, but a previous master caught up with her and sold her again. Undaunted, Tillett managed to find “reputable and honest evidence still alive”, now some forty years later, who could vouch for “her birth, and of her civil and Social Rights.” With her evidence carefully assembled, and arguing that her complexion was “an art of almighty God, Not her crime”, Tillett finally succeeded in obtaining her freedom in 1783. The courts could not always be counted on to provide redress, and indeed, sometimes court magistrates were themselves responsible for the unlawful treatment of free people. In 1733, “divers free people Negros & Mollattoes residing in this province” were “taken up” by order of justices of the peace and bound out until the age of thirty-one, “Contrary to the consent of the parties bound out.” A committee of unnamed white inhabitants protested to the General Assembly that such unlawful practices - “well known” in the settlement - must be stopped. Under pressure from other whites, the General Assembly agreed that the children illegally bound out should should be returned to their parents or guardians. Precariously positioned between slavery and freedom, free blacks vigilantly guarded their legal status in the courts and in the larger community.”

The only information I have been able to find on reducing free people to slavery outside of the United States are these articles:

https://www.cambridge.org/core/servi...2085901100040X

https://glc.yale.edu/sites/default/f...berg-paper.pdf

Given the nature and frequency of kidnapping in the 19th Century United States, it seems rather difficult actually to believe that kidnapping did not occur in Colonial America and in other slave societies in the New World, or even in other slave societies around the world. Does the Arab World seem to be the closest analogy to New World race-based slavery? If so would there have been many analogies to Solomon Northup there? As mentioned above, free people of color even outnumbered slaves in many places across Latin America.

Perhaps it is the case that not many people and scholars paid attention to free people of color in other New World societies? Or that kidnappings weren’t recorded? Or that kidnappings didn’t occur outside the United States?

In forms of reducing free blacks to slavery across the Americas, I assume that kidnapping could be applied to anywhere, since it is outside of the law, is relatively easy to accomplish, and is relatively difficult to track kidnap victims. Is this true? Yet, whereas in the United States free blacks could have also been enslaved legally, information on whether free blacks could have also been legally enslaved in Colonial America and in other New World slave societies is virtually non-existent. I assume that as long as there was manumisssion, in which every slave society in the Americas permitted from the very beginning, there would have always been defects associated with it. But could free-born blacks also be legally enslaved in Latin America and the Caribbean, say as punishment for crimes or being unable to prove their liberty?

Did kidnapping free blacks also occur in the Middle East as well as in India and Europe? Did it occur anywhere there was black slavery?

It seems that slavery in the United States is the best studied and best known of New World slave societies, owing to the United States being the world’s superpower, although it took until post WWII for the US to become so. When most people typically think of ‘black slavery’, what comes to their minds is American Slavery. Perhaps this also explains how kidnapping is best described there and not elsewhere?

Can anyone find material on kidnapping and other forms of reducing free people to slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean as well as the Colonial United States?

Last edited by Millennium; January 14th, 2018 at 11:22 AM.
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Old January 14th, 2018, 09:43 PM   #2
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Millennium View Post
Free colored populations were mostly made up of manumitted as well as the descendants of manumitted slaves. In many places across Latin America, the free colored population even outnumbered the slave population, whereas in the United States the free colored population was always only a fraction of the total colored population. This contrast was likely due to differences in the cultural as well as legal attitudes towards blacks, which Americans were generally more prejudiced towards compared to Latin Americans.

Take Brazil, the country in the New World with the largest number of African imports, the longest running slavery, the last country to abolish slavery in the Americas (and probably the Western World for that matter?), and the holder of the largest population of African descent outside of Africa.

In Brazil, when the first national census was conducted in 1872, just a year after the passage of the Law of Free Birth, some 40 percent of the population was composed of free blacks and mulattoes, which is truly remarkable for a society in which slavery is associated with race. Additionally, Brazil was a nation in which people of color comprised the majority of all inhabitants at nearly 60 percent.
This is a huge contrast to the United States 1860 population census, in which free blacks composed a mere 1.5 percent of the population.
Sorry, I just skimmed your post and will try to respond to a couple of things.

I can't really speak about Brazil, and my knowledge about the Spanish/French West Indies is limited, though growing. I think comparing "British" territories though, I wouldn't say one was more "prejudiced" than the other. Though if you were to ask me today, Jamaica sounds like it was absolutely brutal for plantation slaves, much worse than the Southern US. Others more knowledgeable may disagree.

For one thing, there were limited numbers of white women in the British WI islands, which led to (more) men seeking slaves/natives that in turn led to more mixed-race children. In the 18th century colonies/early US, white men to white women ratios were more evenly distributed. There was not the same "need" to look for women elsewhere. Also, generally, slaves in the Northern colonies/US were healthier and lived longer than the ones in Jamaica. It was expensive to replace slaves in the early US which led to better care (generally) and more babies among slaves. In Jamaica, I have read that plantation slaves were more expendable and cheaper to replace.

I think the southern states were also driven by fear of slave uprisings and passed laws in reaction to things they heard were happening in the islands. For that matter, what happened in the formation of Haiti terrified all the islands and the Southern US States (especially South? Carolina). There was a lot of reactionary law-passing going on after that. This book talks about some of that.
"Empire's Crossroads: A History of the Caribbean from Columbus to the Present Day" by Carrie Gibson

I know you weren't specifically asking about that, but I just wanted to touch on it regardless.

Age of Sail - "Black Jacks"

More on topic, you may find some answers in links attached on the thread above. Olaudah Equiano, IIRC, was almost re-enslaved.

I've also read about African princes going off to be educated in Great Britain and ending up enslaved elsewhere instead. This is discussed in "Black Salt" by Ray Costello. He also discusses free black sailors and African coastal workers (working with the British and supposedly "safe" from slavery) being taken from the African coast.

If you do a search on Historum you might find other threads. Shivfan has threads about the West Indies, as do I, with other links that may be of use.

One last comment. Different groups often had different experiences and might expect different treatment, and experience different levels of risk depending on an individual's circumstances, Africans from Africa, "seasoned" island-born black slaves, freed blacks, enslaved mixed race, free mixed race, plantation vs. city, man vs. woman.

I'm reading this right now.
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitst...6isAllowed%3Dy
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Old January 15th, 2018, 07:58 PM   #3

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There's not a lot of responses, but thanks for creating this thread. I had never considered enslavement/re-enslavement in the US. Not exposed to "12 Years".
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Old January 18th, 2018, 11:59 AM   #4

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it was common after the Fugitive Slave Act.
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Old January 18th, 2018, 10:31 PM   #5

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Millennium View Post
Even foreigners were not immune to being enslaved in the United States. Probably the best example of this is the figure of John Glasgow, who was featured in the ex-slave John Brown’s narrative ‘Slave Life in Georgia’.

A summary of the story of John Glasgow can be read here:

The History Girls: The tragedy of John Glasgow by Tanya Landman

John Brown isn’t sure of what happened to Glasgow after his own escape. Though in all likelihood, Glasgow would have probably lived the remainder of his life enslaved, especially with Glasgow’s crippled leg limiting his physical mobility.

The story of John Glasgow best demonstrates that American Slavery put not only free colored people in America at Risk, but colored people across the Atlantic World. I do have doubts as to whether John Glasgow was a fictional creation of John Brown’s ghost-writer. Such a tale, however, would have been entirely possible under the Negro Seamen Acts as well as by unscrupulous captains aiming to make a quick profit.
I should probably clarify this quote a bit.

It is well known that Africans continued to be smuggled by the thousands into the United States, Cuba and Brazil after those respective governments legally abolished importation of slaves, owing to high profits involved and the relative ease of evading naval vessels.

Probably the most miraculous case regarding illegal slave importation was that of the Amistad captives, who won eventually won their freedom in court and return to Africa after two long years since their capture, but such a miracle was rare, which is what makes the Amistad rebellion unique.

Illegally imported Africans would probably be considered foreigners, but in the passage I was specifically referring to colored people/people of African descent outside of Africa.

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Old January 18th, 2018, 10:34 PM   #6

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The Negro Seaman Acts were basically laws enacted by most lower south states requiring the imprisonment of black sailors, regardless of their background, on incoming vessels until the said vessel be ready to leave port. Yet a large percentage of free blacks’ in the antebellum period worked as sailors, who were probably the most cosmopolitan folk of the period.
South Carolina’s legislature was the first to enact such laws after the unsettling discovery of the Denmark Vesey rebellion conspiracy in 1822, where it was believed that visiting blacks assisted with the conspiracy. Other southern states followed suit over the next four decades.

These laws were enacted out of concern of the potentiality of visiting blacks mingling with local blacks and slaves and spreading anti-slavery propaganda as well as assisting with escapes.
It was the responsibility of the ship captains to pay for the sailors’ jail fees, and any black sailor not redeemed by his employer by the time their vessel left port could be sold into slavery.

In 1829 the Georgia legislature ordered that incoming vessels with blacks on board be subject to quarantine for forty days. Any free blacks who came ashore during this period would be jailed. On the other hand, the quarantine was removed if the blacks’ on board be placed in jail.
Either John Glasgow set foot ashore unaware of the law (why would he or the captain have been aware of such a law of a distant country anyway?) or his captain placed him in jail to remove the quarantine, either way ending tragically for Glasgow .

All slave states in general restricted black mobility with punitive statutes.

Actually any free black, once jailed, was liable to enslavement to pay jail fees. Sailors, unclaimed suspected fugitives, and even debtors, therefore, could be legally enslaved because of the lack of money.

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Old January 18th, 2018, 10:39 PM   #7

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Old January 18th, 2018, 11:12 PM   #8

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Yes, the Fugitive Slave Acts were notorious for putting free blacks at Risk.

Carol Wilson writes in ‘Freedom at Risk’:

Under the federal fugitive slave laws of 1793 and 1850, slaveowners could authorize agents to apprehend runaways and return them south. Legal slave catching became illegal kidnapping, however, when the person claimed as a fugitive slave was actually a free black. Sometimes this misjudgment was a result of a genuine mistake; sometimes it was deliberate. Anti-Slavery author Jesse Torrey explained how kidnappers worked in pairs to misuse this law. A person pretending to be a slave catcher brought a free black into custody as a suspected fugitive slave. Then the accomplice appeared before a magistrate and claimed the suspect as his or her runaway slave. The kidnappers could then legally take their “slave” south to sell.

The effects and responses towards the Fugitive Slave Acts, especially the 1850 one, are well known, producing an interesting chain of responses between slave and free states. They were in effect invitations to kidnapping. During the time leading up to 1850, thousands of slaves were annually escaping slavery into the free states and Canada, creating large demand for federal intervention.

It doesn’t make sense - what was the rationale for paying the special commissioners twice as much for ruling in favor of the suspected fugitive being legally a slave?

Because slavery is completely unnatural to the human condition and anyone would do their best to escape it, every slave society throughout history and in the New World featured slave catchers as it’s own industry.

Were there any fugitive slave laws elsewhere in the Caribbean and Latin America?
How did the whole industry of slave catching there compare with the U.S ?

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Old January 20th, 2018, 06:25 PM   #9

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Quote:
Originally Posted by R5 plus View Post
More on topic, you may find some answers in links attached on the thread above. Olaudah Equiano, IIRC, was almost re-enslaved.

I've also read about African princes going off to be educated in Great Britain and ending up enslaved elsewhere instead. This is discussed in "Black Salt" by Ray Costello. He also discusses free black sailors and African coastal workers (working with the British and supposedly "safe" from slavery) being taken from the African coast.
Yes, in his narrative Equiano relates kidnappings in a few places, such as in chapter 6, where he details the kidnapping of a free mulatto man named Joseph Clipson, and in chapter 8, where he details how he was nearly kidnapped near Savannah.

African princes being enslaved in the Americas, yes those weren’t rare occurrences. There are the narratives of Sori and Zamba:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdu...rahim_Ibn_Sori
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zamba_Zembola

In fact:

The historian Marion Wilson Starling has identified “only four autobiographies of American Negro Slaves containing accounts of the author’s own experiences in Africa”: those of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, Olaudah Equiano, Venture Smith, and Zamba. See The Slave Narrative, 59 and 319n.

The nation’s first abolition society, the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, initially called itself the ‘Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage’ when it was formed by Philadelphia Quakers in 1775. Similarly, the Maryland and Delaware Abolition societies also included ‘for the relief of free negroes’ in their titles:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penn...lition_Society
First American abolition society founded in Philadelphia - Apr 14, 1775 - HISTORY.com
The Maryland Abolition Society, 1789-1798 /
Abolitionists were particularly dedicated to helping victims of kidnapping. The names of the first Abolition societies reflects concern over kidnapping from the movement’s very beginning, and how kidnappings and unlawful enslavement must have been common in the Colonial and early post-revolutionary eras.

This reflects how kidnappings must have also been common during the Colonial and early post-revolutionary eras.

As well as the south, northern free blacks were at Risk of being kidnapped and sold to the Caribbean as well, as well as vice vice versa through unscrupulous captains and the Negro Seaman Acts from 1822 onwards.

In 1788 there was in incident in Boston where three black men were tricked into boarding a vessel, then kidnapped and sold in Martinique:
https://m.facebook.com/permalink.php...98455303500208

And even after slavery was abolished in the United States:
In 1868 a young African American girl was kidnapped from her home in St. Louis and ended being sold into slavery in Cuba:
https://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/2439

In both these cases, the victims were eventually rescued.

Here is an article discussing the authenticity of ‘Twelve Years a Slave’:
Authenticity and Authorship: Solomon Northup?s Twelve Years a Slave | The New York History Blog

Here are some PDF articles:

American Slavery Encyclopedia:
http://1.droppdf.com/files/yXJM3/enc...ted-states.pdf
Negro Seamen Acts:
http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE0042328/schoeppner_m.pdf
Fugitive Slave Act:
https://www.willingboroschools.org/c...lave%20Act.pdf
Personal Liberty Laws:
http://ugrr.mmaps.magian.com/media/P...RR_Final_2.pdf
American Slavery and Colour (you can download it as a PDF under the gears icon) - search for and read the cases of Solomon Northrup, Peter Still and Ned Davis:
https://books.google.com/books?id=pL...page&q&f=false
Kidnapping:
https://edsitement.neh.gov/sites/eds...ng_answers.pdf
Solomon Northup:
http://hikeghosttowns.com/pnotes4.pdf
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Old January 20th, 2018, 06:47 PM   #10

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Quote:
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There's not a lot of responses, but thanks for creating this thread. I had never considered enslavement/re-enslavement in the US. Not exposed to "12 Years".
Not exposed? You can easily read it for free online:

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/...rs_a_slave.pdf

Solomon Northup. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative ofSolomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in1841, and Rescued in 1853.

You can also watch the 2013 film version if you want to be quick, such as on a movie website, although it is highly lacking in detail from the original narrative and seems to be primarily catered for a layman audience looking to watch ‘a good movie for a night’ and uninterested in historical detail.

There’s also the earlier 1984 film version, but it doesn’t seem to be easy to find.

You can also buy ebook forms if you have an ebook reader, in that case I’d suggest getting this one:

https://www.amazon.com/Twelve-Years-...Z288/ref=nodl_
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