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Old February 9th, 2016, 06:31 AM   #11

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Code Blue View Post
That was a two-way barrier, which only gets attention in one direction. Eddie Klepp, in 1946, was the first white player to get a contract to play in the Negro Leagues. There is no movement toward retiring his number.

Also, how the white American and National, or so-called "major," leagues brush up against Jim Crow laws is unclear to me. The southern-most city in those leagues was Baltimore?
Baltimore didn't have a team for over half a century, before the St. Louis Browns packed up and left to become the Orioles in the early 1950s. St. Louis had the Browns and Cardinals, and they were the furthest south and west city in MLB for the first half of the 20th century.
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Old February 9th, 2016, 06:38 AM   #12

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Code Blue View Post
That was a two-way barrier, which only gets attention in one direction. Eddie Klepp, in 1946, was the first white player to get a contract to play in the Negro Leagues. There is no movement toward retiring his number.

Also, how the white American and National, or so-called "major," leagues brush up against Jim Crow laws is unclear to me. The southern-most city in those leagues was Baltimore?
19th century teams scheduled lots of games against non-league teams.

There was also the problem of Cap Anson who led his team in refusing to play against any team with a black player. I believe he was with the Chicago Cubs. There is a section about his racial intolerance and the influence it had on the situation that appears to be in sync with what I read.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cap_An...al_intolerance
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Old February 9th, 2016, 06:58 AM   #13
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Also, how the white American and National, or so-called "major," leagues brush up against Jim Crow laws is unclear to me. The southern-most city in those leagues was Baltimore?
Actually, Washington is slightly further south and Baltimore didn't have a team for most of this period. There were also teams in St. Louis. There were no big cities in the south.

I am not sure what you mean about Jim Crow. I believe black spectators were treated equally at major league games, but there weren't too many of them.

When blacks were first allowed into the major leagues, they had big problems with Jim Crow playing in formerly all white minor leagues in the south.
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Old February 9th, 2016, 09:02 AM   #14
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Originally Posted by betgo View Post
Actually, Washington is slightly further south and Baltimore didn't have a team for most of this period. There were also teams in St. Louis. There were no big cities in the south.
Thanks, forgot about DC.

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When blacks were first allowed into the major leagues, they had big problems with Jim Crow playing in formerly all white minor leagues in the south.
Not just blacks. Eddie Klepp had the same problem. The City of Birmingham stopped Klepp from taking the field.
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Old February 9th, 2016, 09:35 AM   #15

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Sol White - Historian


Sol White on the Color Line

In 1909 Sol White wrote a history of African-American baseball up to that point in time. Of the Color Line situation, he wrote:

“The colored players are not only barred from playing on white clubs, but at times games are canceled for no other reason than objections being raised by a Southern ball player, who refuses to play against a colored ball club. These men from the South who object to playing are, as a rule, fine ball players, and rather than lose their services, the managers will not book a colored team.
The colored ball player suffers great inconvenience, at times, while traveling. All hotels are generally filled from the cellar to the garret when the strike a town. It is a common occurrence for them to arrive in a city late at night and walk around for several hours before getting a place to lodge. . . The cause of this change is no doubt due to the condition of things from a racial standpoint. With the color question upper-most in the minds of the people at the present time, such proceedings on the part of the hotelkeepers may be expected and will be difficult to remedy.”

Of Cap Anson, Sol White had a few choice words. “This color line has been agitated by A C Anson, Captain of the Chicago National League team for years. As far back as 1883, Anson, with his team, landed in Toledo, Ohio, to play and exhibition game against the American association team. Walker, the colored catcher, was a member of the Toledos at the time. Anson at first absolutely refused to play his nine against Walker, the colored man, until he was told he could either play with Walker on this team or take his nine off the field. Anson in 1887 again refused to play the Newark Eastern League with Stovey, the colored pitcher in the box. Were it not for this same man Anson, there would have been a colored player in the National League in 1887. John W. Ward of the New York club was anxious to secure George Stovey and arrangements were about completed for his transfer from the Newark club, when a bawl was heard from Chicago to New York. The same Anson, with all the venom of hate which would be worthy of a Tillman or a Vardaman of the present day, made strenuous and fruitful opposition to any proposition looking to the admittance of a colored man into the National League. Just why Adrian C. Anson, manager and captain of the Chicago National League Club, was so strongly opposed to colored players on white teams cannot be explained. His repugnant feeling, shown at every opportunity, toward colored ball players, was a source of comment through every league in the country, and his opposition, with his great popularity and power in base ball circles, hastened the exclusion of the black man from the white leagues.”
Attached Images
File Type: jpg Sol White - Phil Giants.jpg (50.2 KB, 2 views)
File Type: jpg Sol White.jpg (11.1 KB, 1 views)
File Type: jpg Satchel Paige - Cooperstown.jpg (21.7 KB, 1 views)
File Type: jpg Sol White - Older.jpg (20.1 KB, 1 views)
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Old February 9th, 2016, 03:11 PM   #16

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Moses Fleetwood Walker


[ame]www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-5J5GPy48E[/ame]
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Old February 9th, 2016, 03:15 PM   #17

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From the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum,

[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eORQqMg74k4"]www.youtube.com/watch?v=eORQqMg74k4[/ame]

More on the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_...aseball_Museum
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Old February 9th, 2016, 03:40 PM   #18

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House of David Baseball Team.

Click the image to open in full size.

Click the image to open in full size.



http://www.peppergame.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_...Baseball_teams

The House of David also played with and against Negro League Teams. One interesting thing that stood out to me about this team was that The House of David once recruited Satchell Paige for a pitching job.
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Old February 9th, 2016, 05:51 PM   #19
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Several teams did not black players until the late 1950s. Some of the later ones to integrate, Washington, Cincinnati, and the St. Louis Cardinals were in or near the south.

In the 60s and 70s, about half of the top players in the Major Leagues were black. However, maybe 20% of the total players were, and there were almost no black utility infielders or middle relievers, indicating there was still discrimination.

Now about 8% of Major League players are black, but black are of course the majority in some other sports.

Player Team Date[1]
Jackie Robinson † Brooklyn Dodgers, NL April 15, 1947
Larry Doby † Cleveland Indians, AL July 5, 1947
Hank Thompson St. Louis Browns, AL July 17, 1947
Monte Irvin † New York Giants, NL July 8, 1949
Hank Thompson New York Giants, NL July 8, 1949
Sam Jethroe Boston Braves, NL April 18, 1950
Minnie Miñoso Chicago White Sox, AL May 1, 1951
Bob Trice Philadelphia Athletics, AL September 13, 1953
Ernie Banks † Chicago Cubs, NL September 17, 1953
Curt Roberts* Pittsburgh Pirates, NL April 13, 1954
Tom Alston St. Louis Cardinals, NL April 13, 1954
Nino Escalera Cincinnati Reds, NL April 17, 1954
Chuck Harmon[2] Cincinnati Reds, NL April 17, 1954
Carlos Paula Washington Senators, AL September 6, 1954
Elston Howard New York Yankees, AL April 14, 1955
John Kennedy Philadelphia Phillies, NL April 22, 1957
Ozzie Virgil, Sr.[3] Detroit Tigers, AL June 6, 1958
Pumpsie Green Boston Red Sox, AL July 21, 1959
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Old February 10th, 2016, 02:26 AM   #20

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Rube Foster - Owner/Manager


Rube Foster, Manager and Visionary, Father of Negro League Baseball

Rube found a home and stayed with the Giants for several years. Mr. Leland lost control of the team to Rube Foster and John Schorling in 1909. Rube now pitched and managed the team. He changed the name to the American Giants and led them to prominence in African-American baseball that lasted several years. They went 123 – 6 in 1910 and traveled with World Heavyweight champion Jack Johnson who had played 1st base at one time in his life. Later on, when Johnson was looking to avoid prosecution under the Mann Act for ‘transporting a white woman across state lines for an immoral purpose’ he pretended to be an American Giant in order to get across the border into Canada.

The American Giants beat the Chicago teams in 1911 and 1912. By 1913, they were ready to travel. Foster got a private Pullman railroad car and headed to the west coast. The team traveled west for the next three seasons. As usual, Foster had put together a really nice team. By this time, he had begun to take many of the managerial traits that marked him as a great baseball man. Dave Malarcher, who was destined to play for Foster in the 20s said:

“I never shall forget the first time I saw Rube Foster. I never saw such a well-equipped ball club in my whole life! I was astounded. Every day they came out in a different set of beautiful uniforms, all kinds of bats and balls, all the best kinds of equipment. The American Giants traveled everywhere, as you know. No other team traveled as many miles as the American Giants. When Rube gave them the name American Giants, he really selected a name. That was a good idea, because it became the greatest ball club that ever was. That’s right; the way he played, the way he equipped his team, the way he paid his men, the way he treated his men, the miles that they traveled.”

Once when the team traveled down south, the team’s car had been switched off the main track at the railroad station. “One of the workmen, the brakeman around the yard, saw all of these big Negroes getting out of that car and he said, ‘Hey there. Hey there. What are you Negroes doing getting out of Mr. Rube Foster’s car?’ He had heard about Rube Foster being a great promoter and a great baseball man but he didn’t know that Rube was a Negro. And you know what Rube said? ‘I just happen to be Mr. Rube Foster.”

A competitor described Foster’s style. “He built his club with speed. We’d go out there to play those son of a bitches-excuse me – and you know what he does? We don’t wise up until the end of the ball game, but he had drowned the goddam infield the night before. Those suckers lay down a bunt, it rolls nine feet and stops. The man’s on. My God, by the time you got to the ball the man was on.” (Frank Foster also complained that Foster would freeze baseballs to make them dead. “if you held one long enough, your fingers stuck to the ball!)

The team slumped after World War I. While the war was on, a lot of teams lost their players which left a big demand for the teams that were available. Salaries on the American Giants soared to a total of $1700 per month. But the end of the war brought trouble. Many of their white semi-pro opponents folded up. Now fat and in his late thirties, Rube floated an idea for a Negro National League. He called a meeting in Kansas City to discuss formation. Rube hoped that all the owners would be black men but, in the end, they accepted one white owner, J. L. Wilkinson of Kansas City.

In order to create a stable league, certain rules had to be agreed to. First and foremost, there could be no raiding the rosters of other clubs. Secondly, the player contracts would all contain reserve clauses similar to those that bound white players to their clubs in the Major Leagues. By the end of their meetings, an eight team league was formed. They would have teams in Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, Kansas City, St Louis, Indianapolis, and Dayton.

In addition to the main league, Rube tried to arrange associate memberships for teams on the east and west coasts. He hoped to create an entire minor league system similar to the ones used by the white leagues. Rube was so dedicated to the success of the new league, he allowed some of his own players to join opposing teams and provide balance. He made payroll loans and financed the entire startup for the Dayton team. On some occasions, Rube was even called on for enough cash to get traveling teams home from the road.

As for the American Giants, well, as Dave Malarcher said, “We had gotten together the speed, the daring, the men that could really hit, a good pitching staff, good catching. See, Rube was smart enough, a genius, to know how to pick men to fit into his plays, and he used to say all the time, ‘If you haven’t got intelligence enough to fit into this play, you can’t play here.’ That’s all there was to it. It isn’t generally known, but Rube was so superior in his knowledge of baseball that from 1920 to 1922, the first three years of the league, we were so far out in front of the league by July, they had to break the season up into two halves so there would be interest in the league the second half.”

Another author said in 1970, “I wouldn’t call him reserved, but he wasn’t free and easy. You see, Rube was a natural psychologist. Now he didn’t know what psychology was and he probably couldn’t spell it, but he realized that he couldn’t fraternize and maintain discipline. He wasn’t harsh, but he was strict. His dictums were not unreasonable, but if you broke one he’d clamp down on you. If he stuck a fine on you, you paid it – there was no appeal from it. He was dictatorial in that sense.”

Around 1925 or 26, Rube had an incident in which he fell asleep in a hotel room overcome by heating gas from an open jet. Nobody can be certain if that event triggered mental illness in Rube or caused the mental illness. Either way, the result was the same. Rube started to fall apart mentally. He went into a rapid deterioration and would become violent. One night in 1926, Mrs Foster called for help because ‘There is something wrong with Rube, he’s just going crazy down here. I’m going to have to call the law.’

They committed Rube to an insane asylum. During the next 4 years, there were times when Rube seemed fine and friends tried to get him out of the asylum. Mrs. Foster had the decision and she refused. He remained incarcerated until his death in 1930.

Much beloved, Rube received a huge funeral and lay in state for three days while mourners filed past. Some 3,000 people attended the service. Rube was elected to the Hall of Fame in 1981. Unfortunately, his league folded up after Rube’s death. The depression came on and Negro League baseball was about to fall on hard times.
Attached Images
File Type: jpg Rube Foster #2.jpg (17.1 KB, 2 views)
File Type: jpg Rube Foster #1.jpg (44.2 KB, 2 views)
File Type: jpg Rube Foster - cooperstown.jpg (89.6 KB, 2 views)
File Type: jpg Rube Foster - with his team.jpg (83.6 KB, 2 views)
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