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Old September 7th, 2011, 02:06 AM   #131

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420 – 428 – Vandal Resurgence in Spain – Under their King Gunderic, the Vandals in Galicia quickly recovered from their defeat by the Visigoths. They defeated the Suevi, then defeated Castinus, the new Roman master general in eastern Spain, making themselves preeminent in the Iberian peninsula. Upon Gunderic's death in 428, he was succeeded by his half-brother Gaiseric. The Suevi under Hermanric now made one more effort to throw off the Vandal yoke, but Gaiseric crushed them on the Anas River at the Battle of Merida.

421 – 422 – War with Persia – Persian persecution of Christians under Bahram V led to war that was quickly ended by a treaty after the East Roman general Ardaburius and his son Aspar won several minor successes in Mesopotamia. Persia agreed to allow freedom of worship to Christians, while Constantinople granted similar freedom to Zoroastrianism.

423 – 425 – Usurpation of Joannes – Upon the death of Constantius in 421, his widow Placidia became estranged from her brother Honorius and with her son Valentinian III, sought refuge in Constantinople at the court of Theodosius II, emperor of the East. Upon the death of Honorius, the West Roman throne at Ravenna was usurped by Joannes. Theodosius sent forces under the command of father-and-son generals, Ardaburius and Aspar, to depose the usurper. Ardaburius' fleet was scattered by a storm, and he was captured. Asper, however, marched overland by way of Aquileia to the vicinity of Ravenna. Aided by confederates within the city, he captured it, deposing and killing Joannes. Valentinian was enthroned, but Placidia became the virtual ruler to Theodosius in return for his aid.

424 – 430 – Rise of Aetius – The usurper Joannes had been supported by the Roman-barbarian general Aetius, who captured a barbarian army, composed primarily of Huns supplied by Aeius' friend Ruas, King of the Huns, which he brought to Italy from Pannonia. Arriving too late to rescue Joannes, Aetius promptly made peace with Placidia and Valentinian and was placed in command of Gaul. He defeated Theodoric, King of Toulouse, at Arles, foiling a Visigothic attempt to conquer Provence. After making peace with Theodoric, Aetius in a series of campaigns subdued the Franks and other Germanic invaders of Gaul, re-establishing Roman control over all of Gaul save Visigothic Aquitaine.

428 – Revolt of Bonifacius – During the usurpation of Joannes, Bonifacius remained loyal to Valentinian and Placidia, and was rewarded with the governorship of Africa. Feeling that his influence with Placidia had been undermined by Aetius, and disgusted with lack of imperial appreciation for his past services to the throne, Bonifacius revolted, calling for assistance from Gairseric, the Vandal.

429 – 435 – Vandal Invasion of Africa – Responding to Bonifacius' appeal, Gaiseric led an army – perhaps 50,000 men – of Vandals and Alans into Africa. Bonifacius, having meanwhile been reconciled to Placidia, attempted to call off the Vandal movement, but to no avail, and found himself at war with the barbarians he had invited into his province. Gaiseric twice defeated him near Hippo, then captured the city after a 14-month siege in 431. St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, died during the siege. Taking advantage of internal religious dissensions, the Vandals soon held all north-west Africa except eastern Numidia.
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Old September 7th, 2011, 02:09 AM   #132
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We are getting close to the first "Battle of the Nations": Europeans vs. Huns!
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Old September 8th, 2011, 03:01 AM   #133

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431 – Expedition to Africa – At the request of Placidia, Theodosius and Pulcheria sent Aspar with a strong land-naval force to assist Bonifacius in the defence of Africa. Arriving at Hippo, the combined Roman-East Roman force, under the command of Bonifacius, marched out and was defeated by Gaiseric, who renewed the siege of Hippo. Presumably disgusted by the situation if Africa, Aspar and his force soon returned to Constatinople.

432 – Battle of Ravenna – Placidia, fearful of the growing power of Aetius, called Bonifacius back from Africa during the siege of Hippo. Aetius, marching into Italy from Gaul, was decisively defeated by the imperial forces under Bonifacius. Aetius fled to Pannonia and refuge with his old friends the Huns. Bonifacius was mortally wounded in the battle, possibly by Aetius personally, and soon died.

Treaty with Ruas, King of the Huns – The growing importance of the Huns in central Europe led Theodosius to pay tribute to Ruas and to make him a general in the Roman army. This in effect recognised the gradual extension of Hun sovereignty over Pannonia.

433 - Aetius Returns to Power – When Aetius returned from Pannonia with a large army of Huns, he was restored to favour and given the title of Patrician by Placidia. He became virtual ruler of the West. He made a treaty with Gaiseric, confirming Vandal control of north-western Africa save the environs of Carthage in 435. He spent most of his time in restoring and maintaining order in Gaul with an army composed mainly of Huns and Alans. He defeated a Burgundian uprising. He repulsed Theodoric at Arles in a new Visigothic effort to capture Provence, then defeated the Visigoths again at Narbonne in 436. After desultory war, Aetius and Theodoric signed a treaty in 442. To assure control of the Loire Valley from further Gothic encroachments, Aetius placed a colony of Alans at Orleans. For several years he campaigned against the Salian Franks under Chlodian. He defeated them repeatedly, but finally permitted the persistent barbarians to settle in the region north of the Somme River around 445. Aetius also subdued a number of peasant revolts, one of which briefly threatened his control of Gaul.

Conquests of Attila in the East – Upon the death of Ruas, his nephews Attila and Bleda became joint rulers of the Huns. Renewing the treaty with Constantinople, the new Hun leaders undertook extensive conquests in Scythia, Media, and Persia.

435 - Expansion of Vandal Power under Gaiseric – After consolidating his hold on Mauretania and western Numidia, and building up a powerful fleet of sea rovers, Gaiseric seized Carthage and eastern Numidia by October 439. Next year he raided Sicily, to begin a Vandal piratical career that would terrorise the Mediterranean for a century. Aetius, heavily involved in Gaul, asked help from the East Roman Empire. Theodosius sent a fleet to Sicily, intending an invasion of Africa, but Gaiseric, whose sea raiding had given him wealth, bribed his ally, Attila, ruler of the Huns, to attack Illyricum and Thrace; the East Roman fleet was ordered back to Constantinople.

439 - Resurgence of the Suevi in Spain – The departure of the Vandals provided the Suevi, under their king Rechila, with an opportunity to overthrow weak Roman rule in Spain. He captured Merida in 439 and Seville in 442, and had overrun all of Spain save Tarraconensis before his death in 447. His successor, Rechiari, endeavoured to conquer north-eastern Spain, but was repulsed when Aetius sent reinforcements.
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Old September 9th, 2011, 01:58 AM   #134

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441 – War with Persia – Another short religious war followed renewed persecution of Christians by Persian ruler Yazdegird II. Again, Aspar was successful in a few minor conflicts, and peace was quickly restored on the basis of Persian promises to adhere to the earlier treaty.

Expedition against the Vandals – Upon the request of Aetius, Theodosius sent a large fleet and army to Sicily, with the intention of invading Africa. The East Romans were successful in several naval encounters with the Vandals, but the force was recalled to Constantinople when Attila invaded the East Roman Empire.

441 – 443 – Attila's First Invasion of the Eastern Empire – Bribed and encouraged by Gaiseric, Attila invaded Illyricum. A truce with the imperial court lasted for less than a year. Attila led his Huns into Moesia and Thrace to the very walls of Constantinople. He drove the main imperial army, under Aspar, into the Chersonese peninsula, where he practically annihilated it, only Asper and a few survivors escaping by sea. Continuing to range over the Balkan peninsula at will, Attila suffered only one setback, being repulsed with heavy losses from the town of Asemus. Finally, Theodosius made peace, promising an increased tribute.

445 – Murder of Bleda by Attila – Attila now became the sole ruler of a vast empire of undetermined extent, reaching roughly from southern Germany on the west to the Volga or Ural River in the east, and from the Baltic in the north to the Danube in the south. He was a bold, fierce leader of light cavalry, an excellent tactician, and had some rudimentary strategic ability.

447 – Attila's Second Invasion of the Eastern Empire – As the Huns advanced toward Thrace, panic broke out in Constantinople, where the walls had just been shattered by an earthquake. But the southward drive of Attila was checked briefly by the Eat Roman army in the indecisive Battle of the Utus. Though forced to withdraw, the imperial forces deflected the invaders from Constantinople toward Greece, where the Huns were finally halted by the fortifications at Thermopylae. Theodosius again sought terms. This time the annual tribute was trebled, and he was forced to cede the whole right bank of the Danube to Attila, from Singidunum to Novae for a depth of about 50 miles.
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Old September 9th, 2011, 04:00 AM   #135

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This chain of campaigns totally annhilated the standing Eastern Roman Army. All the sctructure that we can see in Notitita Dignitatum, with its comitatensis, limitantensis and so was wiped out. I think that this crisis supposed the end of lot of standing units that can be traced back to the Principate times.

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Old September 9th, 2011, 07:06 AM   #136

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Hell I couldn't edit the message. My opinion is based on the fact that lots of units dissappeared during the 5th century, part in the West (but surprisingly not all), but also in the Eastern. Apart of undercovering regist, the most plausible enemy that caused this were the Huns.
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Old September 12th, 2011, 03:54 AM   #137

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450 – Death of Theodosius II – Pulcheria, who had exercised virtual rule over the empire during the reign of Theodosius, married Marcian, who became the new Eastern emperor, and immediately stopped the tribute to the Huns. Attila was furious, but he had already made plans to invade the West, so decided to deal with Marcian later.

Attila Decides to Invade the Western Empire – Because of a quarrel with Gaiseric, Theodoric of Toulouse prepared to invade North Africa. Gaiseric again called upon his friend Attila to make a diversion, suggesting that opportunities for rapine and loot were much greater in Gaul and Spain than in the devastated Balkan provinces of the East. At the same time a quarrel had broken out between the two sons of Chlodian, King of the Franks. One of these, Meroveus, asked Aetius for help; the other called on Attila. Another stimulus to Attila was his earlier rebuff when he called upon Valentinian, emperor of the West, for the hand of his sister Honoria and for half the Western Empire.

450 – 457 – Reign of Marcian – After refusing to continue tribute to the Huns, Marcian evidently personally commanded expeditions to repel nomadic attacks on Syria and Egypt in 452, and in Armenia in 456. After the Ostrogoths threw of the Hun yoke, Marcian accepted them under their leaders Walamir, Theodemir, and Widemir as subsidised federati in the East Roman army. At about the same time a substantial contingent of Ostrogoths under Theodoric Strabi enlisted directly in the army under the master general Aspar.

451 – Attila Crosses the Rhine – The Hun emperor led a great host which has been reported at 500,000 warriors – it was probably closer to 100,00 – accompanied by a substantial wagon train of supplies and Hun families. He crossed the Rhine north of Moguntiacum in the territory of his Frankallies. The bulk of the army was Hunnish light cavalry, but there were substantial detachments of Ostrogoths, Gepidae, Sciri, Rugi, Ripuarian Franks, Thuringi, and Bavarians. They advanced on a front of more than 100 miles, north and west of the Mosella River. Most of the towns of nortern Gaul were sacked. Paris was saved, according to legend, by divine intervention called upon by St. Genevieve. While advancing, Attila sent messages to Theodoric urging him to join in a campaign against Roman dominion in Gaul

Aetius Raises an Army – Aetius raised a large army, his Gallo-Roman legions and Roman heavy cavalry forming the core, with substantial contingents of Franks under Meroveus, plus Brugundians and other German federati and Alan cavalry. Even with the unreliable and wavering Alans – kinsmen of the Huns – Aetius had a force probably no more than half the strength of Attila's. His personal appeal, however, persuaded Theodoric that the security of his Visigothic kingdom depended upon joining Aetius against the Huns.

May – June – Siege of Orleans – With more than half of his army Attila advanced through Metz to the Loire Valley, where he laid siege to Orleans. The remainder of his forces devastated northern France. Starving Orleans was on the verge of surrender when the combined forces of Aetius and Theodoric approached. After some inconclusive skirmishing, Attila retreated precipitously, sending for the rest of his army. Aetius pursued closely. With his entire host assembled, the Huns king chose a position suitable for his cavalry army somewhere between Troyes and Chalons, and probably near Mery-Sur-Seine. His wagon train was formed in a great camp behind the army, and was probably reinforced with entrenchments.

Mid-June – Battle of Chalons – Finding Attila thus prepared for battle, Aetius advanced cautiously, to be joined by a substantial number of Frank deserters from the Hun army. Attila drew his army up in three major divisions: he commanded the Huns in the centre, the Ostrogoths were on his left, and most of his other German allies were on the right. Aetius placed Theodoric and the Visigoths (mostly heavy cavalry) on his right, and personally commanded the left, which consisted mainly of his legions, heavy cavalry, and the Frank infantry. The untrustworthy Alans were in the centre, probably supported by a contingent of heavy Roman infantry or cavalry to dissuade them from deserting or changing sides. With Aetius was Thorismund – son of Theodoric – and a Visigothic contingent, possibly in the role of hostages. The battle was apparently opened when Aetius sent Thorismund's contingent to seize a commanding height overlooking the Huns' right flank. Attila replied with a general counter-attack, which penetrated the allied centre, as the Alans either deserted or fled. The Franks and Romans on the left and the main body of Visigoths on the right held firm, however, while fierce Hun attacks were unable to dislodge Thorismund from his isolated position. Theodoric now counter-attacked the Ostrogoths to his front. The aged ruler was struck down in the confused fighting, but despite the death of their leader, the enraged Visigoths slowly forced their Ostrogothic kinsmen back. Meanwhile, on the allied left, Aetius regained contact with Thorismund. Now, apparently in compliance with Aetius' preconceived battle plan, the Huns were threatened by a double envelopment. Realising this, some of Attila's allies, and even his own Huns, began to waver. As darkness descended over the wild scene, Thorismund on the allied left, and the main Visigothic contingent on the right, apparently had routed the opponents to their immediate front; Thorismund himself actually reached the fortified Hun camp early in the evening, but was repulsed by Hun cavalry sent back by Attila. Realising that the day had been lost, Attila had already ordered a general retirement. Fierce, confused fighting continued throughout the night as scattered Hun contingents tried to regain their camp. Aetius ordered his own wing of the army to stand fast under arms all night, while he tried to reorganise the shattered centre. Apparently he was cut off by some of the retreating Huns and barely escaped to the camp fires of the main body of Visigoths, where he spent the night.

Aftermath of Chalons – Attila, expecting Aetius would attack his camp, prepared to fight to the end. Aetius, however, did not attack. It is not clear why he did not at least blockade Attila and starve the Huns to submission. Possibly he feared that complete annihilation of the common enemy would permit the Visigoths to take over all of Gaul. It has even been suggested that he entered into secret negotiations with Attila, promising no retribution if the Huns withdrew immediately from Gaul. In any event, he encouraged Thorismund, new King of the Visigoths, to return to Toulouse with most of his army to assure the security of his new crown. Attila quietly and quickly returned eastward across the Rhine. The casualties at Chalons are unknown; losses were apparently frightful, particularly among the Huns and their allies.

Chalons is generally considered to have been one of the decisive battles of world history, since a victory by Attila would have meant the complete collapse of the remaining Roman civilization and Christian religion I Western Europe, and could even have meant domination of Europe by an Asian people.

452 – Attila Invades Italy – Having returned to Pannonia, Atila again demanded the hand of Honoria; when this was refused, he crossed the Julian Alps into north-eastern Italy. Aquileia, traditional doormat of barbarian invaders, was completely destroyed. As the Hunnish horde advanced, the inhabitants of Venetia withdrew to the islands off the coast, which resulted, according to tradition, in the founding of Venice, though fisher villages already existed on these islands. Destroying Padua, Attila advanced to the Mincio. Aetius, whose main army was still in Gaul, had rushed back to Italy, and apparently held the principal crossings over the Po, cautiously observing the Huns with a small force. At this time Attila apparently learned that one of his lieutenants had been defeated by an East Roman army in north-eastern Illyricum. Famine and pestilence were raging in Italy, making it difficult for Attila to collect supplies for his men and horses, and already causing sickness in his army. At this time a Roman mission, led by Pope Leo I, visited Attila's camp. Whether they offered tribute to the Hunnish leader if he withdrew – which is likely – or whether he was miraculously awed by the demeanour of the Pontiff – according to tradition – or whether Attila was simply fearful for the security of his army and its line of communication – also likely – does not matter. He did withdraw, and Leo has received most of the credit in history.

453 – Death of Attila – The vast Hun empire immediately fell apart as Attila's sons fought for the vacant throne and the Ostrogoths, Gepidae, and other German subject tribes revolted. Ardaric, King of the Gepidae, who had been Attila's right-hand man at Chalons, defeated and killed Ellac, son of Attila, at the Battle of the Netad in Pannonia in 454. Dacia was occupied by the Gepidae, Pannonia by the Ostrogoths. The remnants of the Huns held on to their territory north and east of the Danube for a while under Dengisich, another son of Attila, but their dominions continued to dwindle as German tribes revolted and Dengisich was defeated and killed in south Germany in 469. One contingent, under Attila's youngest son, Irnac, withdrew to the Volga-Ural region, but was soon overwhelmed and absorbed by the Avars. The Huns disappeared from European history.

454 - Death of Aetius – Under circumstances remarkably similar to the end of Atilicho, Aetius was murdered personally by his jealous sovereign, Valentinian III.

455 – Death of Valentinian III – Petronius Maximus, a protιgι of Aetius, murdered the emperor, assumed the throne, and forced Eudoxia, widow of Valentinian, to marry him. Eudoxia thereupon appealed to Gaiseris, the Vandal, for aid.

June 2 – 16 – Sack of Rome – Responding promptly to Eudoxia's plea, Gaiseric led a Vndal fleet to the mouth of the Tiber. Maximus was killed by his own people as he fled; the Vandals occupied and sacked Rome for two weeks. They then sailed back to Carthage, taking Eudoxia with them as a hostage.

456 – Rise of Ricimer – Upon the death of Maximus, the master general of Gaul, Avitus, briefly held the throne with the support of Theodoric II of Toulouse. But Duke Ricimer (of mixed Swabian and Visigothic royal blood) now became the major figure in Italy. He defeated the Vandals at sea near Corsica, then expelled them from a foothold in Sicily. He next overthrew Avitus at the Battle of Piacenza in October. At about the same time the general Marjorian, a former subordinate of Aetius, defeated an invading army of Alemanni at the Battle of the Camp Cannini.

Visigothic Invasion of Spain – With the approval of Avitus, Theodoric II invaded Spain. He defeated Rechiari, King of the Suevi at the Battle of the Urbicas, ending Suevi supremacy in Spain.

457 – 461 – Reign of Marjorian – Set on the throne by Ricimer, Marjorian refused to play a puppet role. Defeating a Vandal force raiding near the mouth of the Liris River, he decided that Vandal depredations could be ended only by destruction of the seat of Vandal power in Africa. First he was determined to reunite the Wetern Empire. He led an invading army of Gaul in early 458 over snow-clogged Alpine passes. Marching westward near Toulouse, he met and defeated Theodoric II, who had hurried back from Spain to protect his capital. Marjorian granted magnanimous peace terms to Theodoric, facilitating his consolidation of renewed of renewed Roman control over the remainder of Gaul and Spain. He now bent every effort toward his main objective: invasion of Gaiseric's kingdom in Africa. He built up a large fleet in Cartgena. With Marjorian's preparations approaching completion, Gaiseric now began to sow treason among the Romans in Cartagena by bribary. Local treachery then permitted a Vandal fleet to surprise and destroy Marjorian's fleet shortly before he was ready to embark in 461. Undaunted by this disaster, he began new preparations, but Ricimer now revolted in Italy. Refusing to rule an ungrateful nation, Marjorian abdicated, and shortly afterward was murdered at the instigation of Ricimer. Thus ended the last brief burst of glory of the Western Roman Empire.

457 – 474 Reign of Leo I – Leo, who owed his throne to the support of Aspar, soon became estranged from his general. To reduce Aspar' influence, the emperor changed his bodyguard from Goths to Isaurians. Ending the subsidy to the Ostrogoths in 461, Leo was forced to renew it the following year when Theodemir – now sole ruler of the Ostrogoths – ravaged Illtricum. An incursion of Huns over the Danube from Dacia was repelled by Leo's general Anthemius in 466; a second Hun invasion was turned back by Anagastus. Meanwhile, following an agreement between Leo and Ricimer, in return for East Roman support against the Vandals, Anthemius had become emperor of the West.

Last edited by Caracalla; September 12th, 2011 at 04:15 AM.
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Old September 12th, 2011, 04:23 AM   #138
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Fall of Rome, 476 AD...... come on!!!
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Old September 12th, 2011, 04:36 AM   #139

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Originally Posted by Thessalonian View Post
Fall of Rome, 476 AD...... come on!!!
Is that an impatient "come on!!!" or a celebratory "come on!!!"?
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Old September 12th, 2011, 04:37 AM   #140
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Is that an impatient "come on!!!" or a celebratory "come on!!!"?
A bit of both, to be honest
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