What did Justinian and Charlemagne have in common?
I'd appreciate any help with this question:
The processes of empire-building under Justinian and Charlemagne had which of the following in common?
a. both brought diverse cultures under the control of a single ruler
b. both allowed conquered peoples to practice their traditional religions
c. neither had strong backing from the dominant religious establishment of their time
d. each emperor imposed his own language on the peoples he conquered
e. neither emperor resorted to violence in order to achieve his goals