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Old January 2nd, 2018, 11:30 AM   #1

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Sun Deities

I would like to open a discussion on sun deities.

Why solar deities were invented in the Neolithic, can be explained by a changed world view, which had shifted its focus from the lunar cycle to the solar cycle due to the introduction of sedentariness and agriculture, the latter most probably invented by women on the basis of their botanic knowledge. The sun was now considered to be the cosmic clock for the fertility of nature. One can only chew over the gender of the first sun deities due to the lack of written evidence. The frequent appearances of sun goddesses and goddesses closely associated with the sun in historical mythologies suggest an originally female gender, since the introduction of a female sun deity after the establishment of the patriarchate is highly improbable. In case goddesses have an important function in patriarchal systems--such as, to name some examples, Hathor in Egypt, Inanna in Mesopotamia, Isis in the entire Roman Empire, sun goddess Sunna in Germanic culture, sun goddess Wurushemma in the Hittite empire, Anahita in Persia and Sarasvati in India--it's only because they are rooted in formerly dominating pre-patriarchal Neolithic goddesses.

Now let us look at a some historical remnants of the presumed prehistoric sun goddesses and at some results of the gender transformation into masculine which still show traces of the transformation process, especially in India. There the god Surya (Skt. for ´sun´) personifies the sun, or more precisely, the sun light. In Vedic mythology he belongs to a group of deities called 'Adityas'. The mother of these adityas is the unmarried heavenly goddess Aditi, whose name means ´unattached´,

In the mythology of the Rigveda, one of the oldest Vedic texts from before 2,000 BCE, Aditi is the most prominent manifestation of the Great Goddess (Skt. Devi) and has, though being mother of a dozen of deities, no association with a male partner, which is sufficient evidence of her rooting in the prehistoric idea of a monogenetic goddess. The ´Mahanirvanatantra´ says about the Devi that she is "the Great Mother sprung from the sacrificial hearth of the fire of the Grand Consciousness, decked with the Sun and Moon" and in another place with reference to this Devi: "The sun, the most glorious symbol in the physical world, is the mayik vesture of Her who is ´clothed with the sun´".

Hence the masculine sun god Surya has a mother who also is equipped with a solar competence as well as with the moon competence typical of the Great Goddess. As if that wasn´t enough, in the Rigveda the sun god is assigned a daughter with the name ´Surya´ (pronounced as opposed to the sun god with a prolonged ´a´) who acts as goddess of the dawn and driving force for the awakening sun.

In Sumer the gender transformation of the lunar deity was accomplished by a transfer of the lunar competence of goddess Inanna to a male god named Sin. A basically comparable process must have taken place in the case of Surya, what is twofold indicated:

Firstly, mythology connects him with a monogenetic mother in form of a heavenly goddess ´clothed with the sun´, what suggests that the sun was formerly personified by Aditi and only in the course of patriarchalization became associated with a male god, whom to separate completely from the original sun goddess the strength of the patriarchal ideology was however not sufficient because of the rooting of a large part of Hindu faith in the prehistoric matristic world.

Secondly, as father of the dawn goddess Surya, sun god Surya is comparable to the Sumerian god An, who was invented by priests in the first half of the 3rd millennium BCE to replace the much older goddess of heaven, Inanna, who, originally without any kinship, was assigned An as her father and later even as her grandfather.

Last edited by Tammuz; January 2nd, 2018 at 11:47 AM.
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Old January 2nd, 2018, 11:54 AM   #2

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Wow! I think you just had the discussion. That was nice.. Human female fertility was also important from the beginning, so she would have to have a relationship with the new sun gods, no?
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Old January 4th, 2018, 09:38 AM   #3

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While I'm so ignorant about this area that I cannot disagree with you, can you cite a source or sources for all of this?
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Old January 4th, 2018, 06:29 PM   #4

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I think this belongs in the "Speculative History" thread...
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Old January 9th, 2018, 10:50 AM   #5

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In ancient Egypt, Ra, or Ra-Horakhty, is the sun god, and both are male and have no known female earlier form. In the old Slavic religion there is a rather similar situation with Dazhbog and Hors, in which Dazhbog is the Sun and Hors, who is also the same god as Dazhbog, represents aspects of the Sun. Dazhbog/Hors, while seeming to have Indo-Iranian origins, is male with no known female antecedent.

As an aside. In Egypt the rising Sun is Horus the younger, and the setting Sun is Horus the elder. In Slavic tradition, Hors is a youth as the rising Sun and an old man as the setting Sun. Coincidence of course.
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Old January 30th, 2018, 11:02 AM   #6

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Actually some theories go further than that and speculate that Jesus is derived from the Egyptian sun god Horus:

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Old January 30th, 2018, 12:21 PM   #7

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As a subscriber to the view that Jesus is part Horus and part Osiris, I find these videos to be counter productive. It contains information that has no basis in what we know about Horus, and gross distortions. I am of a mind to think that some of these videos have been made with such gross distortions and various nonsense in order to discredit the Horus/Osiris = Jesus viewpoint. The part of the video [2:23], about the status and relationship between Horus and Set, is so laughably wrong that the author is either ignorant of the basic elements Egyptian mythology, or if he does know, then a provocateur.
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Old March 6th, 2018, 09:52 PM   #8
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I can discuss this if you express more clearly what you mean by they "invented" these deities?

There are certain obvious items of biology that relate women to the Moon.

I would also caution the conflation of "gender" with "masculine/feminine." A prime example of the representation of masculine and feminine can be seen in many representations of Hindu deities where one half is portrayed as male and the other female. These are symbolic of certain human attributes possessed by BOTH sexes, not exclusive to each sex.

The major difference between the Sun and the Moon is the changing form. The Moon is literally of "fertile" appearance, it waxes and wanes, where the Sun remains circular and consistent - they are two very distinct properties of the feminine and masculine attributes; the feminine being chaos/fertility and the masculine being ordered/tyrannical.

Different cultural shifts and patterns may lead people's to take on certain representation of the Moon and Sun in regards to climate and global positioning as well as cultural heritage.

To return to "invention," no one 'invented" a chair (in a literal sense), people just so happen to be able to sit on things, and from this common action the making of chairs sprouted.
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