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Old March 28th, 2015, 02:34 PM   #1
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Black Baseball before Jackie Robinson


I recently served as moderator for a discussion group that I participate in, and the subject that I chose was Black Baseball before Jackie Robinson. I was surprised by how much material is available online, so I thought I'd post a few links to the things I found:

1) This, in five parts, is a succinct history that was first published in the statistical enclyclopedia "Total Baseball":

Black Ball « Our Game

Black Ball, Part 2 « Our Game

Black Ball, Part 3 « Our Game

Black Ball, Part 4 « Our Game

Black Ball, Part 5 « Our Game

2) This three-part article from the Society for American Baseball Research tells the sad story of the imposition of the "color bar" in Organized Baseball in the late 1800s:

Out at Home « Our Game

Out at Home, Part 2 « Our Game

Out at Home, Part 3 « Our Game

3) This, another Society for American Baseball Research article, explains in three parts that the Jackie Robinson signing is more complex than is often realized:

Jackie Robinson?s Signing: The Real Story « Our Game

Jackie Robinson?s Signing: The Real Story, Part Two « Our Game

Jackie Robinson?s Signing: The Real Story, Part Three « Our Game

4) This is the text of Ted Williams' Hall of Fame induction speech of 1966, when he called for players from the Negro Leagues to be eligible for Hall of Fame induction:

Throwback: Ted Williams? Hall of Fame speech | HardballTalk

5) This is Baseball-Reference database of Negro League (and other black teams that barnstormed or played in other leagues outside of Organized Baseball) statistics:

Negro Leagues Baseball History | Baseball-Reference.com

With an explanation of where the data came from:

Negro League Data Sources | Baseball-Reference.com

6) This is the book that resulted from the recent Major League Baseball-Hall of Fame effort to gather information and data on the subject:

[ame="http://www.amazon.com/Shades-Glory-Leagues-African-American-Baseball/dp/079225306X"]Shades of Glory: The Negro Leagues and the Story of African-American Baseball: Lawrence D. Hogan, Jules Tygiel: 9780792253068: Amazon.com: Books@@AMEPARAM@@http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51AB7QCEQ7L.@@AMEPARAM@@51AB7QCEQ7L[/ame]

7) This is a fine oral history collection from about 40 years ago, when many of the top players were still alive:

[ame="http://www.amazon.com/Voices-Great-Black-Baseball-Leagues-ebook/dp/B00A62YQBG/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1427576530&sr=1-1&keywords=voices+from+the+great+black+baseball+le agues"]Amazon.com: Voices from the Great Black Baseball Leagues: Revised Edition (Dover Baseball) eBook: John B. Holway, Frank Ceresi: Books@@AMEPARAM@@http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/519RUrZfbbL.@@AMEPARAM@@519RUrZfbbL[/ame]

8) This is the website of the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum in Kansas City:

Negro Leagues Baseball Museum

9) Players and executives inducted by the National Baseball Hall of Fame:

1971 - Satchel Paige --------------- Negro L. committee
1972 - Josh Gibson ----------------- Negro L. committee
1972 - Buck Leonard ---------------- Negro L. committee
1973 - Monte Irvin ----------------- Negro L. committee
1974 - "Cool Papa" Bell ------------ Negro L. committee
1975 - Judy Johnson ---------------- Negro L. committee
1976 - Oscar Charleston ------------ Negro L. committee
1977 - Martin Dihigo --------------- Negro L. committee
1977 - "Pop" Lloyd ----------------- Negro L. committee

1981 - Rube Foster ------------------Veterans committee
1987 - Ray Dandridge --------------- Veterans committee
1995 - Leon Day -------------------- Veterans committee
1996 - Willie Foster --------------- Veterans committee
1997 - Willie Wells ---------------- Veterans committee
1998 - Bullet Joe Rogan ------------ Veterans committee
1999 - Smokey Joe Williams --------- Veterans committee
2000 - Turkey Stearns -------------- Veterans committee
2001 - Hilton Smith - ---------------Veterans committee

2006 - Cumberland Willis "Cum" Posey-Special Election
2006 - Ben Taylor -------------------Special Election
2006 - George "Mule" Suttles---------Special Election
2006 - Raleigh Clarence "Biz" Mackay-Special Election
2006 - J. Preston "Pete" Hill--------Special Election
2006 - Cristobal "Carlos" Torrienti--Special Election
2006 - Louis "Santop" Loftin---------Special Election
2006 - Ray Brown---------------------Special Election
2006 - Jud Wilson--------------------Special Election
2006 - Jose Mendez-------------------Special Election
2006 - Alex Pompez-------------------Special Election
2006 - James (J.L.) Wilkinson--------Special Election
2006 - Willard Brown-----------------Special Election
2006 - Frank Grant-------------------Special Election
2006 - Andy Cooper-------------------Special Election
2006 - Sol White---------------------Special Election
2006 - Effa Manley-------------------Special Election

The group elected in 2006 came about as a result of the same research effort that produced "Shades of Glory" and much of the statistical database.

To these should be added baseball writers Wendell Smith and Sam Lacy, who both won the Hall of Fame's J.G. Taylor Spink Award for Outstanding Writing.

Last edited by RoryOMore; March 28th, 2015 at 02:53 PM.
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Old March 28th, 2015, 02:49 PM   #2
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Also, in the early 1950s, the Pittsburgh Courier newspaper did a poll of 31 Negro League players, writers, and executives to choose an all-time team. [Note: I've never seen the poll presented and analyzed online in a systematic way. I've copied and pasted the below from a posting elsewhere that I think gets the gist of the poll. I think it gives a good idea of who was mentioned in the poll, and in general of who the main figures in black baseball were.]

First team: (1B) Buck Leonard, (2B) Jackie Robinson, (SS) Pop Lloyd, (3B) Oliver Marcelle, (OF) Monte Irvin, (OF) Oscar Charleston, (OF) Cristobel Torriente, (C) Josh Gibson, (C) Biz Mackey, (P) Joe Williams, (P) Satchel Paige, (P) Bullet Rogan, (P) John Dondaldson, (P) Bill Foster, (Utility) Martin Dihigo, (Utility) Sam Bankhead, (Mgr) Rube Foster, (Coach) Dizzy Dismukes, (Coach) Danny McClellan.

Second Team: (1B) Ben Taylor, (2B) Bingo DeMoss, (SS) Willie Wells, (3B) Judy Johnson, (OF) Pete Hill, (OF) Cool Papa Bell, (OF) Chino Smith, (C) Roy Campanella, (C) Bruce Petway, (P) Dave Brown, (P) Dick Redding, (P) Nip Winters, (P) Dizzy Dismukes, (P) Don Newcombe, (Utility) John Beckwith, (Utility) Newt Allen, (Mgr) Cum Posey, (Coach) C.I. Taylor, (Coach) Dave Malarcher.

Third Team: (1B) Jud Wilson, (2B) Bill Monroe, (SS) Dick Lundy, (3B) Jud Wilson, (OF) Rap Dixon, (OF) Larry Doby, (OF) Fats Jenkins, (C) Double Duty Radcliffe, (C) Louis Santop, (P) Slim Jones, (P) Bill Holland, (P) Phil Cockrell, (P) Webster McDonald, (P) Bill Byrd, (Utility) Emmett Bowman, (Utility) Dick Wallace, (Mgr) Ed Bolden.

Fourth Team: (1B) Ed Douglas, (2B) George Scales, (SS) Doby Moore, (3B) Ray Dandridge, (OF) Jimmy Lyons, (OF) Mule Suttles, (OF) Spotswood Poles, (C) Frank Duncan, (C) Bill Perkins, (P) Double Duty Radcliffe, (P) Frank Wickware, (P) Danny McClellan, (P) Leon Day, (P) Bill Jackman, (Utility) Rev Cannady, (Utility) Jose Mendez, (Mgr) Vic Harris.

Fifth Team: (1B) George Carr, (2B) Bunny Downs, (SS) Pelayo Chacon, (3B) Dave Malarcher, (OF) Frank Duncan, (OF) Turkey Stearnes, (OF) Jelly Gardner, (C) Doc Wiley, (C) Speck Webster, (P) Stringbean Williams, (P) Ray Brown, (P) Rats Henderson, (P) Luis Tiant, (P) Leroy Matlock.

Others receiving votes: (1B) Leroy Grant, Mule Suttles; (2B) Nate Harris, Sammy T. Hughes, Frank Warfield, Ray Dandridge, George Wright, Harry Williams; (SS) Gerard Williams, Bobby Williams, Morton Clark; (3B) Bill Francis, Jim Taylor; (OF) Minnie Minoso, Jap Payne, Blaine Hall, Ted Strong, Ted Page, Vic Harris; (P) Jose Mendez, Laymon Yokely.

This is a link to an analysis of the poll, but I found it hard to follow:

http://johndonaldson.bravehost.com/pdf/00237.pdf
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Old July 22nd, 2015, 12:53 PM   #3
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More links:

10) This is an article about the unusual career of slugger Luke Easter:

Invisible man | NBC SportsWorld

11) These are two articles about Bill Veeck’s reported attempt to purchase the Phillies:

http://sabr.org/cmsFiles/Files/Bill_...e_Phillies.pdf

At page 109:

http://research.sabr.org/journals/fi...Journal-35.pdf

12) This article is about the pace at which major league teams integrated:

The Integration Timeline | Joe Posnanski

Last edited by RoryOMore; July 22nd, 2015 at 12:55 PM.
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Old July 29th, 2015, 04:06 AM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RoryOMore View Post
More links:

10) This is an article about the unusual career of slugger Luke Easter:

Invisible man | NBC SportsWorld

11) These are two articles about Bill Veeck’s reported attempt to purchase the Phillies:

http://sabr.org/cmsFiles/Files/Bill_...e_Phillies.pdf

At page 109:

http://research.sabr.org/journals/fi...Journal-35.pdf

12) This article is about the pace at which major league teams integrated:

The Integration Timeline | Joe Posnanski
About 15 years before Jackie Robinson played for the dodgers A minor team from Bismarck North Dakota became the first baseball team to integrate. The team included a few hall of fame players: as Satchel Paige, Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe, and Quincy Trouppe They left the Negro Leagues to play ball for the team.
From an interesting book” The team that broke the color blind: The forgotten team by Tom Dunkel
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Old August 3rd, 2015, 12:59 PM   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Port View Post
About 15 years before Jackie Robinson played for the dodgers A minor team from Bismarck North Dakota became the first baseball team to integrate. The team included a few hall of fame players: as Satchel Paige, Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe, and Quincy Trouppe They left the Negro Leagues to play ball for the team.
From an interesting book” The team that broke the color blind: The forgotten team by Tom Dunkel
As many of the articles linked above show, there were black players in Organized Baseball (that is, the major leagues and their allied minor leagues) in the 19th century. After that, there were various teams that were integrated, among them the All Nations Team of the 1910s:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_Nations

Paige also pitched for the baseball team of the House of David in the 1930s:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_...Baseball_teams
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Old August 4th, 2015, 03:53 AM   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Port View Post
About 15 years before Jackie Robinson played for the dodgers A minor team from Bismarck North Dakota became the first baseball team to integrate. The team included a few hall of fame players: as Satchel Paige, Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe, and Quincy Trouppe They left the Negro Leagues to play ball for the team.
From an interesting book” The team that broke the color blind: The forgotten team by Tom Dunkel
effie Maning was an owner of a team (Newark?) in the Negro League, as the MLB becomes integrated the Negro League loses influence and its market. Does anyone have information about how many people lost their jobs or economic impact following integration? Lou Dolby was he first black player in the American league. Never received the notice that Robinson received. Although a very good player he was not a J. Robinson.
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Old August 4th, 2015, 07:32 AM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Port View Post
effie Maning was an owner of a team (Newark?) in the Negro League, as the MLB becomes integrated the Negro League loses influence and its market. Does anyone have information about how many people lost their jobs or economic impact following integration? Lou Dolby was he first black player in the American league. Never received the notice that Robinson received. Although a very good player he was not a J. Robinson.
It's Effa Manley (yes, Newark Eagles) and Larry Doby (first in the AL). Doby was inducted by the Hall of Fame in 1998. He's not listed above with the Hall of Famers from the Negro Leagues because the Hall of Fame committee at that time was limited to one Negro Leaguer per year, and that slot went to pitcher Bullet Rogan. Doby was inducted from among the pool of major league players.

Manley said in a 1948 article that if the Negro Leagues failed, "400 young men and their families will be dumped among the unemployed." There were twelve top level league teams who probably employed 250 or so players and coaches, plus some minor league activity in the South, and a few barnstorming teams that remained. 400 players seems, if anything, maybe a little low. Lost economic activity including transport, concessions, etc., goes far beyond the jobs of the players.
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Old August 4th, 2015, 02:42 PM   #8
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Can you recommend any other books about the negro leagues?
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Old August 4th, 2015, 04:26 PM   #9
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Can you recommend any other books about the negro leagues?
I really recommend the John Holway book linked above. There's also Robert Peterson's, "Only the Ball Was White: A History of Legendary Black Players and All-Black Professional Teams" (1970), which was the standard history until "Shades of Glory" came out.
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Old October 23rd, 2015, 02:06 PM   #10
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Some information about Louis Armstrong's team in New Orleans:

https://www.offbeat.com/articles/lou...cret-revealed/
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