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Old January 7th, 2018, 12:02 PM   #31

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Do you mean the ninbetsucho and shumon aratame were compiled as one report? Or that temples and government were creating the nearly identical registries, independent of one another, and pointlessly doing the same work twice?
I would assume that the government census didn't include religious data, since that was covered by the temple reports. However, I can't really say with 100% certainty. The two reports were combined to make a final census report for a designated area, a han for example. This combined registry was called shumon ninbetsu aratamecho or shumon ninbetsucho.

Last edited by Maki; January 7th, 2018 at 12:23 PM.
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Old January 8th, 2018, 04:26 PM   #32
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Thank you for information and reference.

On another thread, the thesis CONTINUITY AND CHANGE OF MOMOTARŌ (by James Polen) was cited.

http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/10422/1/jspolenthesis.pdf

Page 18 describes how Momotaro met censorship.

Quote:
"The Momotarō tale that exists today greatly resembles the tale that existed during the late Edo period. This was an era when authors and artists, well-versed in both the classics and the vernacular, had to use their wit and pluck to avoid bakufu censors. Mitate (humorous flouting)見立 and haikai (poetry) parties were popular ways to use wordplay to convey hidden meanings."

"The scene where Momotarō leaps from the old woman’s peach is actually a subversive reference to childbirth, a topic which otherwise would have been taboo"
Was existed central agency regulating publication or oral censorship? heard of seals for publication approval but Momotaro thesis read like the Tokugawa suppress oral storytelling.

Any knowledge of agency on censorship please share. Plan to check if conflict with Buddhist.

Maybe for 'no' as Buddhists had their own regulating agency.
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Old January 8th, 2018, 11:03 PM   #33

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The bakufu censorship regulations first appeared in 1673, during Ietsuna's reign and those regulations required writers to obtain permission from the machi-bugyo overseers to write about any events that might potentially be used against the monopoly of the shogunate (corruption in the government, natural disasters etc). However, most of the regulations date from Tsunayoshi's reign. In 1722 Yoshimune issued an ordinance that forbade any heterodox discourses, any publications of erotic nature and forbade any mention of the Tokugawa family members. Although briefly relaxed in 1735, these regulations were tightened again by Matsudaira Sadanobu in 1790 in an edict that basically said that new books are unneccessary.

These edicts were mainly directed against Western and Western-influenced works, for example Takahashi Kageyasu, the man who translated Western works and gave maps of Japan to Philipp Franz von Siebold, was posthumously beheaded. In 1811 the shogunate created a Bureau for the translation of Barbarian Writings that was transformed into the Institute for Western Studies in 1855, an institution that was used by the government to control the flow of Western knowledge in Japan. Other notable examples of people being prosecuted for their works include: Osaka bookseller Nishimura Denbei, killed because he sold works that referred to Iemitsu, Shikano Buzaemon whose works sparked a rush on the plum market etc. Bookseller guilds were used by the government to enforce censorship. In 1673, an Edo official ordered a woodblock carver to create a guild that would inform authorities on any suspicious works. Unwelcome works were those that included things like Christianity, criticism of the government and even those that propagated other forms of Confucianism not supported by the government. The most famous example of this Confucianism censorship was the case of Yamaga Soko who was banished because he criticised the official doctrine of neo-Confucianism.
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Old January 9th, 2018, 12:35 PM   #34
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In 1722 Yoshimune issued an ordinance that forbade any heterodox discourses, any publications of erotic nature and forbade any mention of the Tokugawa family members.
How did Yoshimune's administration justify such censorship to their citizens? I mean, were the policies backed by neo-Confucian principles/orthodoxy?
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Old January 9th, 2018, 12:55 PM   #35

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How did Yoshimune's administration justify such censorship to their citizens? I mean, were the policies backed by neo-Confucian principles/orthodoxy?
One of the purposes of the censorship was the preservation of moral Confucian virtues, so that certainly played a part in the justification of the censorship.
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Old January 9th, 2018, 01:49 PM   #36
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Interesting. In theory, 'heterodox discourses' would be practiced at Buddhist temples, but I doubt there was any incident between the censors and temples.

Do you know more about the 'censors'? What education did they require? When they want to censor 'something', what's their actual protocol?
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Old January 9th, 2018, 11:32 PM   #37

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Interesting. In theory, 'heterodox discourses' would be practiced at Buddhist temples, but I doubt there was any incident between the censors and temples.

Do you know more about the 'censors'? What education did they require? When they want to censor 'something', what's their actual protocol?
The temples were censored as well. The government enforced strict hierarchy on the Buddhist branches so that, by controlling the main temple, they could control the entire branch. The government supported scholarly interests of the clergy, but was opposed to any sectarian conflicts and forbade criticising other sects. The flourishing of Buddhist scholarship in the 17th and 18th centuries was impressive, but it was conservative scholarship with the focus only on its own sect.
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Old January 11th, 2018, 03:38 PM   #38
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The temples were censored as well. The government enforced strict hierarchy on the Buddhist branches so that, by controlling the main temple, they could control the entire branch. The government supported scholarly interests of the clergy, but was opposed to any sectarian conflicts and forbade criticising other sects. The flourishing of Buddhist scholarship in the 17th and 18th centuries was impressive, but it was conservative scholarship with the focus only on its own sect.
And did any 'Buddhist scholarship' involve Confucius studies?

Are Confucius studies practiced by monks in Japan of present day? Suppose I go to Japan to a few random temples and quiz some the temples' most revered monks on the Analects. How they would do?
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Old January 12th, 2018, 05:38 PM   #39
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Originally Posted by Maki View Post
The bakufu censorship regulations first appeared in 1673, during Ietsuna's reign and those regulations required writers to obtain permission from the machi-bugyo overseers to write about any events that might potentially be used against the monopoly of the shogunate (corruption in the government, natural disasters etc). However, most of the regulations date from Tsunayoshi's reign. In 1722 Yoshimune issued an ordinance that forbade any heterodox discourses, any publications of erotic nature and forbade any mention of the Tokugawa family members. Although briefly relaxed in 1735, these regulations were tightened again by Matsudaira Sadanobu in 1790 in an edict that basically said that new books are unneccessary.

These edicts were mainly directed against Western and Western-influenced works, for example Takahashi Kageyasu, the man who translated Western works and gave maps of Japan to Philipp Franz von Siebold, was posthumously beheaded. In 1811 the shogunate created a Bureau for the translation of Barbarian Writings that was transformed into the Institute for Western Studies in 1855, an institution that was used by the government to control the flow of Western knowledge in Japan. Other notable examples of people being prosecuted for their works include: Osaka bookseller Nishimura Denbei, killed because he sold works that referred to Iemitsu, Shikano Buzaemon whose works sparked a rush on the plum market etc. Bookseller guilds were used by the government to enforce censorship. In 1673, an Edo official ordered a woodblock carver to create a guild that would inform authorities on any suspicious works. Unwelcome works were those that included things like Christianity, criticism of the government and even those that propagated other forms of Confucianism not supported by the government. The most famous example of this Confucianism censorship was the case of Yamaga Soko who was banished because he criticised the official doctrine of neo-Confucianism.
What do historians call the official neo-Confucian orthodoxy accepted by Tokugawa? Do you have a reference on the censorship utilized to protect the official doctrine? What I'm finding does not involve the monks. I think this is correct, but I'll talk about it later.

Here is another note

Quote:
"The neo-Confucianism espoused by Seika, with its dominant emphasis on the self-cultivation and sagehood, has little direct bearing on government but an important oblique connection with the symbolic legitimation of power."

Brown, Kendall H. The Politics of Reclusion: Painting and Power in Momoyama Japan. University of Hawaii Press, 1997. Page 170.
What year did the Tokugawa become 'legitimized' by neo-Confucianism?
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Old January 13th, 2018, 01:04 PM   #40
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What got me on Confucius studies was my belief that the censorship described by Maki seemed intended to protect Tokugawa neo-Confucianism from other forms of neo-Confucianism, and not other arbitrary ideologies, particularly for this discussion Buddhism. The Bakufu is supported by neo-Confucianism and must protect the neo-Confucianism that backs it.

Conclusion: In the age of neo-Confucianism, the monks were mostly obsolete when it came to Chinese studies. Without Confucianism, the Buddhism’s political influence crumbled. Harsh, but see these citations

Quote:
“It is also to be remarked that from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries most of the great generals and lords were assisted by the counsels of priests, mostly of the Zen sect. There were in those days, indeed, no learned scholars who were not Buddhist priests. Towards the close of the sixteenth century, a man named Fujiwara Seikwa, who had been a Buddhist priest but had renounced Buddhism, was the first to teach Confucian moral philosophy as interpreted by Shu-shi, a philosopher of the Sung dynasty, and distinct from Buddhist teaching. Iyeyasu was a great admirer of Seikwa, and the teachings of the Shu-shi school of the Confucian philosophy formed the basis of the teaching of Chinese classics, that is to say, of the education of the upper classes, thus causing the emancipation of our moral teaching from all religious influences. Other schools of Confucian philosophy arose, but none of them was so influential as the Shu-shi school.

Iyeyasu and his immediate successors were, however, too busy with the work of consolidation to do very much for the advancement of learning and education; but Tsunayoshi (1680-1709), the fifth Shogun, who was a. great Chinese scholar, gave a great impulse to the study of Chinese literature. He himself delivered courses of expository lectures on Chinese classics, which were attended by daimyos and his own immediate retainers. An Academy was opened for the first time in Yedo, where learned scholars of Chinese literature gave expository lectures of classics and made commentaries on them. This Academy continued till the beginning of the present era of Meiji to be a sort of University for the Chinese learning.”

Kikuchi, Baron. A sketch of Japanese National Development. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Volume XXVII, 1907. Page 338
Quote:
Central to the savant strategy was scholar’s assertion that his views were superior to those of others because they were more “correct” or, more commonly, because they were somehow more useful, more appropriate to the time and place, a proposition embodied in the term jitsugaku: “real,” “useful,” or “practical” learning. In Razan’s early days, when Buddhists such as the Zen monk Ishin Suden and the venerable monk Tenkai were key advisors to Ieyasu, scholars employed the term jitsugaku to juxtapose Confucian learning to Buddhism. Razan wrote,

Now, Confucianism is “jitsu” (real) and Buddhism is Kyo (empty). Indeed the delusion as to what is real and what is empty is prevalent in the world. I one is asked which he would take, the real or the empty, who will choose the empty and discard the real? Thus, those who prefer Buddhism, which is not real, to Confucianism do such a thing only because they have not heard of the Way.

In much the same spirit, in 1638 Asayama Irin’an, a lapsed Zen monk who became Confucian advisor to two major daimyo, wrote Kiyomizu monogatari, a popular tract that explained the virtues of Ch’eng-Chu ideas and contrsted their practically with the uselessness of Buddhism.

By then, however, many had “heard of the Way,” and the political role of Buddhist scholars was declining. Not even the vigor of the hatamoto-turned-Zen monk Suzuki Shosan, who retooled peacetime service by trading swords for sutras, could reverse the decline. In the role as elder proponent of higher insight, Shosan devoted three years to the practical task of consolidating the Tokugawa order by converting Christian adherents to Buddhism after the Shimabara Rebellion. But the future lay elsewhere: by the 1650s and 1660s such major lords as Masayuki of Aizu, Mitsukuni of Mito, and Mitsumasa of Okayama were actively attempting to suppress Buddhism in their domains.

Totman, Conrad. Early Modern Japan. University of California Press, 1993. Page 166-167
I pulled Totman believing that he was my best reference on the political fall of the Buddhist monk and the rise of neo-Confucian scholar. But I had no recollection of that last sentence on the Daimyo’s suppressing Buddhism. My guess is that these incidences were localized and not under order of the Bakufu.

The last record I found of Buddhists lecturing for the Shogun occurred during Tsunayoshi. Roughly 1690, I believe.

Quote:
“That Tsunayoshi’s dedication to lecturing on the Confucian classics was more than a fascination with hearing his own voice is suggested by the fact that a number of other men were always called upon to similarly lecture and engage in debate. These were not only professional Confucian scholars; daimyo and even Buddhist prelates were required to demonstrate their knowledge of Confucian classics by lecturing in front of the shogun in and the assembled court.”

Bodart-Bailey Beatrice M. The Dog Shogun: The personality an Policies of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. Page 228
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