Historum - History Forums  

Go Back   Historum - History Forums > World History Forum > Asian History
Register Forums Blogs Social Groups Mark Forums Read

Asian History Asian History Forum - China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, New Zealand, and the Asia-Pacific Region


Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes
Old November 18th, 2017, 11:02 AM   #1
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168
Did Tokugawa bakufu oppress Buddhism following?


I know that the Tokugawa bakufu had Neo-Confucianism as the bakufu's official orthodoxy.

Did the bakufu engage government policies to oppress Buddhism?

I ask if there were policies like biased taxation or closing of temples.
nakamichi is offline  
Remove Ads
Old January 4th, 2018, 08:52 AM   #2
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168

Ieyasu had conducted definitely centralization. Looks like he picked up were Hideyoshi left off in extorting Buddhists.

Noticed 'prohibitions on warrior monks'. Doubt much combat between Tokugawa and monks had happening sicne Toyotomi already did that part.

Quote:
“Regulating Legal Authority

Buyō Inshi’s complaints about the corruption of the Sōtō Zen clergy refer to “the rules set by the first [Tokugawa] Shogun Ieyasu.” These rules were among the first series of legal directives (hatto 法度 or gohatto 御法度) issued by Ieyasu 家康 (1542– 1616) and the newly established Shōgunal government in the city of Edo. However, the process of establishing a new structure of governance that could exert authority over former rival warlords and their domains, the aristocracy and the imperial household in Kyoto, and religious institutions such as Buddhist temples could only gradually unfold as the new regime gained more control over the provinces.

The bakufu created a new legal framework with these directives to establish a new order in which potential rival sources of power and authority (local lords, the imperial court and aristocrats in Kyoto, and Buddhist institutions) would be awarded a certain level of autonomous decision-making authority, but only under the ultimate control of the regime. The first Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, followed the model established by earlier warlords (sengoku daimyō 戦国大名) who tried to unify the Japanese provinces under their control, such as Oda Nobunaga 織田信長 (1532–1582) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 (1536–1598). They had used a double-pronged strategy of, on the one hand, destroying or at least weakening any Buddhist institution that posed a potential threat to their control, and on the other, providing patronage to Buddhist temples to help solidify their hegemony over this powerful institution (McMullin 1985).

The first series of these directives (1602–1615) was issued by Tokugawa Ieyasu to sects that were securely under his control. Noticeably absent were the Jōdo Shin and Nichiren sects, which remained potential threats in the bakufu’s eyes, and the Ji sect, which was hard to regulate because its head abbots often moved from place to place (yūgyō shōnin 遊行上人). The earliest directives were generally limited to a single temple (Kōyasan 高野山, Daijuji 大樹寺, Hieizan 比叡山, Jōbodai’in 成菩提院, Senmyōji 千妙寺) or a particular region (the Kantō-region directives for the Tendai sect and the two Shingon sect lineages). Indeed, it was not until 1615 that the bakufu’s key advisors on religious affairs, such as Konchiin Sūden 金地院崇伝 (a Rinzai Zen cleric, 1549–1633) and Tenkai 天海 (a Tendai cleric, 1536–1643), were able to issue more broad-based rules that covered all sects and regions of Japan (Katō 1977; Tamamuro 1987, 6–25).

These directives primarily clarified the organizational structure of Buddhist institutions and the hierarchy of clerical ranks so that such institutional matters would come under the purview of the bakufu, rather than being left to the discretion of each sect. Although the specific details of the rules differed for each sect, general decrees that applied to each sect were as follows: a supreme head temple for Buddhist training (honzan 本山); a system of head and branch temple relations (honmatsu seido 本末制度) that enabled each head temple to have authority over its branch temples; a standard for clerical qualifications or regulations (for example, the length of training required to become a fully fledged cleric, robe colors for each rank, and standards of moral discipline); and prohibitions on warrior monks and the buying or selling of temple abbotships. These directives by the government were intended to curb the local Buddhist institutions’ decisionmaking powers and to set up a framework for the government to prohibit certain practices and encourage others. In other words, the bakufu wanted to concentrate the power to control Buddhist activities in bakufu-approved head temples.

In the case of Sōtō Zen, the first Shogun issued three directives: the 1612 Sōtōshū hatto and the 1615 Eiheiji shohatto 永平寺諸法度 and Sōjiji shohatto 総持 寺諸法度. The 1612 directive was initially dispatched to four temples (Daitōin 大 洞院, Ryūonji 龍穏寺, Sōneiji 総寧寺, Kasuisai 可睡斎) that had ties to Tokugawa Ieyasu, several of which were later designated as official Sōtō Zen liaison temples in charge of communicating with the bakufu. The directive included the following five points: Directive for the Sōtō Sect Item: A cleric who has not completed thirty years of clerical training cannot become a resident temple abbot (hōdō 法堂).

Item: A cleric must have completed twenty years of clerical training before serving as a training retreat head (gōkogashira 江湖頭).

Item: Temples should not allow monks and nuns who were expelled from a different temple for committing transgressions to come into residence.

Item: To receive a colored robe (ten’e 転衣),3 a cleric must have spent five years from the time served as a training retreat head without having committed any offenses.

Item: All branch temples must obey the decisions and rules set out by their head temple. Anyone who does not follow the above rules will be expelled from the temple grounds. The twenty-eighth of the Fifth Month, Keichō 慶長17 (1612)”

Williams, Duncan. The Purple Robe Incident and the Formation of the Early Modern Sōtō Zen Institution. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 36/1, 2009. Page 29-31
Don't see any Tokugawa decree saying 'Buddhism illegal'. In fact AFAIK, Sakoku state that Shinto-Buddhism were only legal religions from Japan, right?
nakamichi is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 08:56 AM   #3
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168

Quick answer maybe 'Tokugawa Buddhists lose their political influence to the Neo-Confucians and centralization, but practicing Buddhism is no discouraged.'
nakamichi is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 09:26 AM   #4
Tak
Citizen
 
Joined: Nov 2017
From: Neu Fürstentum Zeon
Posts: 30

Maybe the trend of oppressed Buddhists was carried over from Nobunaga? For he was actively discouraging certain Buddhist practices, and was an active opponent to a great many Buddhist sects until his death.

Quote:
Originally Posted by nakamichi View Post
or closing of temples.
Nobunaga certainly engaged in the compelled closure of temples, through arson.

Ironically, he would die in a Buddhist temple as the latter burnt down.
Tak is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 09:55 AM   #5
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168

Answer on this maybe easy. Buddhist temple that does what Oda or Toyotomi want stay. You go against them, they shut you down.

Politics.

I read that Hideyoshi did reposition temples in Kyoto and spy on them. Same book also say something as 'Not only Daimyo capitalized on the weakened Shogunate.' Point is monks too flourish during Sengoku and Warlords as Toyotomi showed them what Toyotomi view as their place.
nakamichi is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 10:21 AM   #6
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tak View Post
through arson.
No surprise there
nakamichi is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 10:41 AM   #7

Maki's Avatar
Historian
 
Joined: Jan 2017
From: Republika Srpska
Posts: 1,792

Did the Buddhism declined under the Tokugawa and lose some of its influence? Yes, undoubtedly so. But the bakufu never outright oppressed it, in fact they used the Buddhist temples when it suited them. For example, all people were compelled to registrate at a temple to prove that they had no Christian affiliation and this increased number of people associated with sects like the Nichiren or Pure Land Buddhism. The government also sponsored the scholarly pursuits of the Buddhist clergy which led to the boom of scholarship in the 17th and 18th centuries. And new Buddhist schools came to Japan, such as Obaku which was established in 1620s and spread through Japan thanks to the efforts of people like Itsunen Shoyu and Ingen. Tokugawa Japan would also be a home to other important Buddhist thinkers representing other schools: Rinzan school included people like Takuan Soho, Bankei Yotaku and Hakuin Ekaku.
Maki is online now  
Old January 4th, 2018, 01:19 PM   #8

Naomasa298's Avatar
Modpool
 
Joined: Apr 2010
From: T'Republic of Yorkshire
Posts: 30,725

Given that Ieyasu was deified as a Buddha (Daigongen), it seems unlikely.

Kyounyo was granted land by Ieyasu to establish the Higashi Honganji in Osaka as a reward for his support. I imagine loyalty to the bakufu had a lot to do with how much you were tolerated.
Naomasa298 is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 05:16 PM   #9
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168

Quote:
Originally Posted by nakamichi View Post
Quick answer maybe 'Tokugawa Buddhists lose their political influence to the Neo-Confucians and centralization, but practicing Buddhism is no discouraged.'
There's a typo here. My conjecture is 'During the Tokugawa Bakufu, Buddhists lost their political influence to the Bakufu's adoption of Neo-Confucianism, and, the centralization policies the Bakufu enforced onto the clergy. But practicing Buddhism was never discouraged'
nakamichi is offline  
Old January 4th, 2018, 05:17 PM   #10
Archivist
 
Joined: Jun 2017
From: Algeria
Posts: 168

Quote:
Originally Posted by Naomasa298 View Post
I imagine loyalty to the bakufu had a lot to do with how much you were tolerated.
What happened to those who were not tolerated?
nakamichi is offline  
Reply

  Historum > World History Forum > Asian History

Tags
bakufu, buddhism, oppress, tokugawa



Thread Tools
Display Modes


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Discussion: The Japanese Bakufu leakbrewergator Asian History 76 January 15th, 2018 02:48 PM
Tokugawa Japan leakbrewergator Asian History 11 February 4th, 2016 04:54 AM
Buddhism and Indology (why Upanashads before Buddhism in the west) Piccolo Asian History 5 January 30th, 2016 06:14 AM
Tokugawa's Japan Musubi History Help 1 October 30th, 2015 01:34 AM
Tokugawa Shoganate ncwillus Asian History 11 September 14th, 2009 04:55 PM

Copyright © 2006-2013 Historum. All rights reserved.