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Old December 29th, 2017, 03:21 PM   #1

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Chola vs Pala


Adopted & adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chola_...to_North_India

Rajendra Chola I is recorded as having organised an expedition to North India some time between 1019 and 1024. A few historians have interpreted is expedition to to hv been more of a pilgrimage to the Ganges. Still, many view it as a predominantly military campaign intended to bring the states of Eastern India into the Chola fold. The expedition traversed Vengi, Kalinga, Odda and Bengal, ending at the Ganges river. His victory over Mahipala I of the Pala dynasty of Bengal is taken by many as the cresting of the expedition.

Click the image to open in full size.
Gangaikonda Cholapuram: built by Rajendra Chola to celebrate his success in the Ganges Expedition

The trigger is believed to hv been a succession dispute in Eastern Chalukya, where Rajaraja Narendra, son of Vimaladitya the previous king and his queen Kundavai, was being challenged by Vishnuvardana Vijayaditya VII, son of Vimaladitya through another wife. Vishnuvardhana Vijayaditya VII was supported by Jayasimha II of Western Chalukya and also the kings of Kalinga and Odda, thereby posing a serious threat to Rajaraja Narendra.

Rajaraja Narendra appealed to Rajendra Chola I, his maternal uncle, for help. Rajendra sent a large force under General Araiyan Rajarajan, a veteran of the Chalukya-Chola Wars. Araiyan Rajarajan defeated Vijayaditya, and after driving him out, firmly established Rajaraja Narendra on the throne of Eastern Chalukya.

Now, guys, ya all share with us what you know about this event.

Last edited by Dreamhunter; December 29th, 2017 at 03:40 PM.
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Old December 29th, 2017, 03:48 PM   #2

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Just to kick things off, is the Chola version of events related to this expedition of theirs rock solid & infallible? Or has there been, perhaps, a lot of unverified exaggeration?
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Old December 30th, 2017, 12:16 AM   #3
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There is solid proof of cholas capturing the whole of orissa. Indraratha of the somavamsi dynasty which ruled the northern and central parts of orissa, was taken prisoner along with his family. Somavamsi dynasty borders the pala empire. I do not know if secondary sources corroborate the cholas entry into the bengal region.
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Old December 30th, 2017, 12:31 AM   #4
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There are a lot of evidence and events which correlate with the Chola invasion of Kalinga and parts of northern India. For example the Chola invasion of Kalinga led to the decline of the Somavamsi Dynasty and the rise of a new family in Kalinga who are related to the Chodas of Andhra.

Rajendra Chola also killed Dharmapala which led to the collapse of the Kambhoja Pala Dynasty which was an enemy of the Pala Dynasty in West Bengal and Bihar.
The Chola invasion of East Bengal led to the decline of the Chandra Dynasty which collapsed a few years later when a Kalachuri King took advantage of the decline.
Mahipala of the Pala Dynasty was defeated by the Chola forces but Mahipala seems to have suffered the least of all the north Indian kings as his main enemies the Kambhoja-Pala Dynasty and Chandra Dynasty were destroyed by the Chola forces.
The records of Rajendra Chola mention that Mahipala had fled the battlefield and Rajendra Chola does not seem to have raided the capital of the Pala Dynasty. Mahipala took advantage of the Chola invasion as his main enemy the Kambhoja Pala Dynasty had collapsed because of the Chola invasion

Last edited by Theseus; December 30th, 2017 at 12:36 AM.
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Old December 30th, 2017, 01:31 PM   #5

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That's is the part that has stumped me, the relationship between Pala & Kambhoja Pala. I had been under the impression that they were the same one dynasty, i.e. a native indigenous Bengali dynasty that had somehow absorbed some Kambhoja elements, who some confused folks had happened to believe was two different ones, which was what I had read before, somewhere.

The Pala cavalry, BTW, which as I understand it was the cream of the Pala army, was in fact dominated by Kambhoja. That is what I hv read.

Perhaps our friend Aup Ji can shed some light on this matter, especially with him being a progeny of the Kambhoja.

Last edited by Dreamhunter; December 30th, 2017 at 01:36 PM.
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Old December 31st, 2017, 02:03 AM   #6
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During the early years the Kamboja Palas were allies and vassals of the Palas but later they they gained their independence.

Rajendra Chola was not the only Chola ruler who ordered campaigns into northern India.
Virarajendra Chola ordered his general Kulothunga to invade the Chattisgarh region.
The forces of Virarajendra Chola also invaded the famous north Indian capital of that time Kanauj to liberate it from the influence of Someshvara of the Chalukya Dynasty who had overrun the major part of northern India at that time
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Old December 31st, 2017, 02:32 AM   #7

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dreamhunter View Post
Perhaps our friend Aup Ji can shed some light on this matter, especially with him being a progeny of the Kambhoja.
My kind of Kambojas did not go to Gauda. They were in Saraswati region and went the other eay, Kashmir. However, it seems Kaamboja-Palas perhaps ruled South Bengal/Orissa and the Palas Bihar, North Bengl and Assam. Kambojas gained entry in Pala kingdom because of lack of cavalry. Theseus is more informed on this.
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Old December 31st, 2017, 04:36 PM   #8

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Theseus View Post
Virarajendra Chola ordered his general Kulothunga to invade the Chattisgarh region.
The forces of Virarajendra Chola also invaded the famous north Indian capital of that time Kanauj to liberate it from the influence of Someshvara of the Chalukya Dynasty who had overrun the major part of northern India at that time
What years did these can happen in? Before the 1068 re-invasion of Kadaram then, I guess.
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Old December 31st, 2017, 04:42 PM   #9

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Originally Posted by Theseus View Post
During the early years the Kamboja Palas were allies and vassals of the Palas but later they they gained their independence.
What year did this gaining of independence occur?

And so, I imagine the Kambhoja Pala kind of carved out a chunk of Bengal to form a kingdom of their own, or something along that line.
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Old December 31st, 2017, 07:53 PM   #10

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Sometime after 850 AD after the Pala king Devpala employed them. Their second king Narayanapal is dated as below:

Historian Estimate of reign
RC Majumdar (1971) 854–908 CE
AM Chowdhury (1967) 866–920 CE
BP Sinha (1977) 865–920 CE
DC Sircar (1975–76) 860–917 CE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narayanapala
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