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Old January 12th, 2018, 07:12 AM   #1
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Foreign relationships of Tamna


After 660 AD, did Tamna have any foreign relations? Tang, Silla, Japan?
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Old January 12th, 2018, 08:54 AM   #2
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First of all, what was T'amna? Archaeologically Cheju island is far less developed than the Korean peninsula or Japan. Agriculture was pretty small-scale before the Iron Age, as the conditions on the island aren't very conducive to it. Thus there appears to have been minimal social complexity on the island before the Iron Age. Iron tools were acquired through trade with the mainland beginning circa 200 BC.

Even then it appears to have had much less social complexity than its neighbors, though the people were heavily involved in trade with both Japan and Korea, though there isn't really any evidence for any significant trade with China.

Sadly the sources don't discuss T'amna very much. The Chuho described in the Sanguo zhi and Houhan shu were most likely the people of T'amna in the 3rd century. They were described as being short and small, shaving their heads like the Xianbei, and speaking a language different from that of the Han people on the peninsula. They raised pigs and oxen and wore clothing that had a top but no bottom, and went to the peninsula to trade in markets there.

In 476, polities (unlikely to be anything more than simple chiefdoms) entered into tributary relationships with Paekche, possibly involving a military alliance as Paekche often had with Yamato. They were later made subject to Shilla in the late 7th century, and Shilla gave their three leaders the titles of Songju, Tonae, and Wangja. These were probably some sort of paramount chiefs over the three main polities on the island.

I'm not aware of any polities on T'amna having formal relationships with Japan or China.

Koryo subjugated the island in 938, and officially annexed it in 1103. It wasn't until 1404, however, that it was fully incorporated into the Korean administrative structure, this time during early Choson.

Last edited by Haakbus; January 12th, 2018 at 09:08 AM.
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Old January 12th, 2018, 09:47 AM   #3
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During the Yuan rule there was the Sambyolch'o rebellion in 1270-1273, which was defeated by the Koryo-Mongol forces and the Mongols established direct rule over Cheju and used it to pasture horses.

The Cheju "dialect" is actually a separate language as there is very little intelligibility with mainland Korean. It appears to have split off during the Early Middle Korean period, possibly as early as Koryo's annexation in 1103.

Last edited by Haakbus; January 12th, 2018 at 09:49 AM.
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Old January 12th, 2018, 12:59 PM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Haakbus View Post
In 476, polities (unlikely to be anything more than simple chiefdoms) entered into tributary relationships with Paekche, possibly involving a military alliance as Paekche often had with Yamato. They were later made subject to Shilla in the late 7th century, and Shilla gave their three leaders the titles of Songju, Tonae, and Wangja. These were probably some sort of paramount chiefs over the three main polities on the island.

I'm not aware of any polities on T'amna having formal relationships with Japan or China.
Who did Tamna side with or was controlled by in 660s and 670s?
In 660s, not Silla, because Silla was Tang ally. So, did Tamna support Pekche restoration 661...663, or submit to Ungjin Commandery?
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Old January 12th, 2018, 01:13 PM   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by chornedsnorkack View Post
Who did Tamna side with or was controlled by in 660s and 670s?
In 660s, not Silla, because Silla was Tang ally. So, did Tamna support Pekche restoration 661...663, or submit to Ungjin Commandery?
I don't know. It probably wasn't really controlled directly until Koryo annexed it in 1103. It was a tributary of Paekche, but that state was destroyed they probably had a period of independence before coming under Shillan dominance not too long later.

This is actually a topic I'm fairly new to, but what I post here is what I know.

I'm not aware of T'amna helping Paekche during the restoration movement or being part of Ungjin, but it's possible one or both of those are true.
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Old January 13th, 2018, 12:45 AM   #6
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Turns out Tamna did send embassies to Japan after 660.
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Old January 13th, 2018, 08:03 AM   #7
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Interesting where can I read about the embassies?
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Old January 13th, 2018, 12:22 PM   #8
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Nihon Shoki mentions them.
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Old January 13th, 2018, 12:53 PM   #9
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Ah, thanks.

T'amna probably sought protection from Japan after Paekche was destroyed. This also shows that the polity or polities on the island were de facto independent.

Last edited by Haakbus; January 13th, 2018 at 01:06 PM.
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Old January 13th, 2018, 01:14 PM   #10
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Also, while Tsushima has always since 3rd century AD been controlled by Japan, control which was tightened by 7th-8th century reforms, it does not appears that Tamna was incorporated in Japan in that way.

How and when did Silla relationships with Tamna begin?
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