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Old June 5th, 2011, 04:39 AM   #1
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India, Hinduism, Buddhism


I especially would like to know about India, Hinduism and Buddhism. Hope you can give me some advices and some others supplements.

These are what I know:

At first, India believed in Brahmanism.
Later, in the Maurya period, Ashoka established Buddhism as the state religion.
However, with the social and economic development, Brahmanism began to rehabilitate and then developed into the present Hindu.

Last edited by Cherry Woo; June 5th, 2011 at 04:46 AM.
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Old June 5th, 2011, 05:01 AM   #2
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It's not as simple as that but give me a day or two to formulate a proper reply.
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Old June 5th, 2011, 05:15 AM   #3

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Cherry Woo View Post
I especially would like to know about India, Hinduism and Buddhism. Hope you can give me some advices and some others supplements.

These are what I know:

At first, India believed in Brahmanism.
Later, in the Maurya period, Ashoka established Buddhism as the state religion.
However, with the social and economic development, Brahmanism began to rehabilitate and then developed into the present Hindu.
Buddha was a revolutionary. He rebelled against the ritual-oriented Brahman worship and emphasized personal improvement and breakthroughs instead of offering sacrifices to the gods. However, his teaching was founded on the basis of Brahmanism. For example, the concepts of samsara, karma, even all the gods, asuras, supernatural beings came from the old Hindu religion. You will see Vishnu in Buddhist scripture as 遍入天, Shiva as 大自在天, Brahma as 梵天. 天龍八部 came directly from the Hindu pantheon. You know the famous four-faced Buddha(四面佛) in Thailand? He's really Brahma, the Creator God.

If you like to know more about Hinduism, I highly recommend
Bhagavad_Gita Bhagavad_Gita
.

Also, most Hindus worship Vishnu as their main god(75%). And they believe Vishnu decends to earth to fight evil and to teach us from time to time. Hence, he has many avatars. Of the ten greatest avatars, Buddha was his nineth. The tenth, final one is Kalki who will descend to destroy all evil and restore the world to goodness. A messiah-figure like Jesus. Of course, Buddhism also has a similar figure calledc Maitreya(彌勒佛).
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Old June 5th, 2011, 05:40 AM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Rosi View Post
It's not as simple as that but give me a day or two to formulate a proper reply.
Thank you very very much ~
I wait for you, xD
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Old June 5th, 2011, 06:42 AM   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mandate of Heaven View Post
Buddha was a revolutionary. He rebelled against the ritual-oriented Brahman worship and emphasized personal improvement and breakthroughs instead of offering sacrifices to the gods. However, his teaching was founded on the basis of Brahmanism. For example, the concepts of samsara, karma, even all the gods, asuras, supernatural beings came from the old Hindu religion. You will see Vishnu in Buddhist scripture as 遍入天, Shiva as 大自在天, Brahma as 梵天. 天龍八部 came directly from the Hindu pantheon. You know the famous four-faced Buddha(四面佛) in Thailand? He's really Brahma, the Creator God.

If you like to know more about Hinduism, I highly recommend Bhagavad Gita - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Also, most Hindus worship Vishnu as their main god(75%). And they believe Vishnu decends to earth to fight evil and to teach us from time to time. Hence, he has many avatars. Of the ten greatest avatars, Buddha was his nineth. The tenth, final one is Kalki who will descend to destroy all evil and restore the world to goodness. A messiah-figure like Jesus. Of course, Buddhism also has a similar figure calledc Maitreya(彌勒佛).
Many of the professional terms, I saw long time to understand, thank you for sharing it,xD

I remember Brahma has many names, which commonly known as Erawan Shrine(四面佛) in the Chinese area.

Quote:
You will see Vishnu in Buddhist scripture as 遍入天, Shiva as 大自在天, Brahma as 梵天.
I do not know much about Gods in Buddhism, and I know the three major Hindu gods are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, so, can we say that 遍入天/大自在天/梵天 are the three major Buddhism gods?

Quote:
天龍八部 came directly from the Hindu pantheon.
Tian Long Ba Bu, as a Buddhist term that refers to eight Shinto monster, What is the relationship between them and other Buddhism Gods?

Quote:
If you like to know more about Hinduism, I highly recommend Bhagavad Gita - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
"Bhagavad Gita" is one of the oldest yoga classics in the world, she describes a story dating back 4500--4600 years agoa with form of myth, you introduced a very good book to me, thank you very much, and can you introduce another book similar to this?

Quote:
The tenth, final one is Kalki who will descend to destroy all evil and restore the world to goodness.
Can you tell me how Kalki speak in Chinese?


My problem seems to be a bit more, lol. I am looking forward your reply~
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Old June 5th, 2011, 07:03 AM   #6

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Some forms of Buddhism recognise "gods" in the traditional sense, some don't. In Teravada Buddhism, which is practised in Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand and Sri Lanka, there are no "gods" as such. Buddha is recognised as a teacher, whose teachings lead people to attain Nirvana, or freedom from self and suffering.

Mahayana Buddhism, which is the kind practised in Tibet is somewhat different, but I know very little about it.

Some esoteric forms of Buddhism. such as Pure Land Buddhism (净土宗), which is the kind practised in Japan, is a branch of Mahayana and does have gods, some of which have been adopted from Hinduism. For example, the Four Heavenly Kings (四天王 - in Japanese shitenno) are revered as guardian deities. They are known in Japanese as Tamon-ten (Chinese: 毗沙门天), Jikoku-ten (Chinese: 多罗吒天), Zoujou-ten (Chinese: 留博叉天) and Koumoku-ten (Chinese: 毗琉璃天).
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Old June 5th, 2011, 12:53 PM   #7
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I think the main reasons for the decline of Buddhism in India were the death of Emperor Harsha Vardhana in the late 7th century, the preaching of the Hindu philosopher Adi Shankara against Buddhism in the 8th century and the collapse of the Buddhist Nalanda Monastery in the late 12th century.
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Old June 5th, 2011, 02:39 PM   #8

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Cherry Woo View Post
Tian Long Ba Bu, as a Buddhist term that refers to eight Shinto monster, What is the relationship between them and other Buddhism Gods?
This term, 天龍八部 (which in Japanese would be read as Ten Ryuu Hachi Juu), refers to the eight classes of divine beings, which are:
Deva (天) - Supernatural beings, or angels
Naga (那伽) - snake like divine creature, enemy of the Garuda. In China (and Japan), the Naga is equated to the Long or Ryuu, the dragon
Yaksa (夜叉) - guardian deity, usually shown as a demonic warrior
Gandharva (乾闥婆 <-- Japanese spelling)
Asura (阿修罗) - Demon, or the lowest rank of the devas
Garuda (迦楼羅 <-- Japanese spelling) - In Buddhism, man/bird type devas
Kimnara ( 緊那羅 <-- Japanese spelling) - celestial musicians and protectors of Buddhism
Mahoraga (摩ご羅迦 <-- Japanese spelling) - protectors of Buddhism depicted as giant serpents

You should be able to read some of the Japanese spellings in Chinese, I think. Sorry, I couldn't find the Chinese spelling.

The classes of divine beings have been directly adopted into Buddhism from Hinduism, but the Buddhist version differs slightly in most aspects to the Hindu versions.
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Old June 5th, 2011, 03:38 PM   #9

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Cherry Woo View Post
Many of the professional terms, I saw long time to understand, thank you for sharing it,xD
You are very welcome!

Quote:
I remember Brahma has many names, which commonly known as Erawan Shrine(四面佛) in the Chinese area.
Even though Braham is one of the three major Gods in Hinduism. He's not worshipped like Vishnu or Shiva. Wikipedia says there are only 3 Brahma temples in India.

Quote:
I do not know much about Gods in Buddhism, and I know the three major Hindu gods are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, so, can we say that 遍入天/大自在天/梵天 are the three major Buddhism gods?
They are major gods in Hinduism. I think they were minor gods in Brahmanism. They do exist in Buddhism scriptures. But Buddhism doesn't believe in relying on gods since they suffer from samsara too. They are the 天s in 天龍八部. Another famous daeva or god is Indra, 帝釋天 or 因陀羅. In Baghavad Gita, Krishna was translated in Buddhism as 黑天.

Quote:
Tian Long Ba Bu, as a Buddhist term that refers to eight Shinto monster, What is the relationship between them and other Buddhism Gods?
Tian Long Ba Bu includes all the supernatural beings. Gods are among them, known as 天.

Quote:
"Bhagavad Gita" is one of the oldest yoga classics in the world, she describes a story dating back 4500--4600 years agoa with form of myth, you introduced a very good book to me, thank you very much, and can you introduce another book similar to this?
Another interesting book is The Great Transformation by Karen Armstrong:

Amazon.com: The Great Transformation: The Beginning of Our Religious Traditions (9780375413179): Karen Armstrong: Books
Amazon.com: The Great Transformation: The Beginning of Our Religious Traditions (9780375413179): Karen Armstrong: Books


But it contains quite a bit very elementary mistakes for Chinese. For example, it says Lao Tze was not a contemporary of Confucius. Duke of Zhou was the brother of the King Wen of Zhou, etc. Otherwise, it's an interesting book that talks about the major religions that came about at around the same time frame.

Quote:
Can you tell me how Kalki speak in Chinese?
So strange, I can't find its Chinese name. But
Kalki Kalki


Quote:
My problem seems to be a bit more, lol. I am looking forward your reply~
Thank you! This is a very interesting discussion for me.
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Old June 5th, 2011, 03:46 PM   #10

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Naomasa298 View Post
This term, 天龍八部 (which in Japanese would be read as Ten Ryuu Hachi Juu), refers to the eight classes of divine beings, which are:
Deva (天) - Supernatural beings, or angels
Naga (那伽) - snake like divine creature, enemy of the Garuda. In China (and Japan), the Naga is equated to the Long or Ryuu, the dragon
Yaksa (夜叉) - guardian deity, usually shown as a demonic warrior
Gandharva (乾闥婆 <-- Japanese spelling)
Asura (阿修罗) - Demon, or the lowest rank of the devas
Garuda (迦楼羅 <-- Japanese spelling) - In Buddhism, man/bird type devas
Kimnara ( 緊那羅 <-- Japanese spelling) - celestial musicians and protectors of Buddhism
Mahoraga (摩ご羅迦 <-- Japanese spelling) - protectors of Buddhism depicted as giant serpents

You should be able to read some of the Japanese spellings in Chinese, I think. Sorry, I couldn't find the Chinese spelling.

The classes of divine beings have been directly adopted into Buddhism from Hinduism, but the Buddhist version differs slightly in most aspects to the Hindu versions.
In Chinese folklore, 岳飛 was said to be an incarnation of a great Garuda(In Buddhism, man/bird type devas) that always sat next to the Buddha. 金兀朮 was said to be a dragon(Naga (那伽) - snake like divine creature, enemy of the Garuda. In China (and Japan), the Naga is equated to the Long or Ryuu, the dragon). On his way to incarnate, the Garuda saw a great dragon swimming in the river, and pecked out one of his eyes. 岳飛 and 金兀朮 went on to have an intense and dramatic rivalry in history.
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