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Old September 4th, 2011, 06:21 AM   #1

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Post Rajputs


The Hindu Warriors.....

The Rajputs are a martial race and caste of the Indian subcontinent. They are a Hindu caste whose members generally consider themselves to belong to the Kshatriya ("warrior") varna (division of society); however, Encyclopedia Britannica notes that their members have come from a variety of lineages, including from foreign invaders.[1]
Rajputs rose to prominence during the 6th to 12th centuries, and until the 20th century Rajputs ruled in the majority of the princely states of Rajasthan and Saurashtra, where the largest number of princely states were found.[2]
Contents [hide]
1 The main lineages
2 Clan organization
3 Major Suryavanshi clans
4 Major Chandravanshi clans
5 Major Agnivanshi clans
6 References
7 External links
The main lineages

The Rajputs are divided into clans, each clan belonging to one of three basic lineages (vanshas or vamshas):[1]
The Suryavanshi lineage, claiming descent from Surya, the Hindu Sun god. In English it is known as the Solar Dynasty;
The Chandravanshi lineage, or Lunar dynasty lineage claims descent from Chandra (the moon or Budh). The Chandravanshi lineage is known as the Lunar Dynasty in English;
The Yaduvanshi lineage are a major sub-branch of the Chandravanshi lineage. Lord Krishna was born a Yaduvanshi.
The Puruvanshi lineage are a major sub-branch of the Chandravanshi Rajputs. The Kauravs and Pandavs of the epic poem Mahabharata were Puruvanshis.
The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from Agni, the Hindu god of fire. Four main Rajput clans are considered to be Agnivanshi. They are Chauhans, Paramara, Solanki and Pratiharas.
Clan organization



Maharana Pratap, a Sisodia ruler
Each of these Vanshas or lineages is divided into several clans (kula), all of whom claim direct patrilineage from a remote but common male ancestor who supposedly belonged to that Vansha. Some of these 36 main clans are further subdivided into shakhas or "branches", again based on the same principle of patrilineage.
Each shakha or basic sub-clan has its individual genealogical creed, describing the essential peculiarities, religious tenets, and original domicile of the clan. This creed is a touchstone of traditional affinities and provides all information governing the laws of intermarriage.
Major Suryavanshi clans

Bais (Byce)
The Bais Rajput, (also known as Bhains Rajput in certain regions), are a powerful and ancient Rajput clan composed of the wealthy, warriors, entrepreneurs, and Zimindar (land owners).
The Bais claim descent from Lakshmana, brother of Rama. The Bais Rajput are renowned as warriors with the ability to maintain dominion over their empires. Their reputation was earned by their kings and landowners that ruled over northern India for and held vast tracts of land for the clan. Princely states of the Bais were Oudh, Lucknow, and Sialkot.
Chattar
The most respected and highly distinguished amongst all the Rajput clans as a rajput can not be a Kshatriya if not a Chattari.The mother caste of Suryavanshi Rajputs which originated from Rajputana in Rajasthan. However, there are many Gotras and sub castes in other major dynasties which emerged from the Chattari lineage. Chattaris belong to the military and ruling order of the traditional Vedic-Hindu social system as outlined by the Vedas.
Gaur Rajputs
The Suryavanshi Rajputs of Gaur are descendants of the Rajput Pala Dynasty which ruled ancient Bengal, then known as Gaur. Its capital was Lakshmanabati, named after the Pala king Lakshman Pal, under whose patronage the first literary work in Bengali, "Geet Govindam", was composed by the Gengali poet Jayadeva (circa 1200 AD).
Some old texts of the British raj refer to the Pala rajputs as Gour or Gaur Rajputs. Government gazettes of the British era have references to Gaur Zamindars in Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
One of the surviving linages of this clan : PAWAYAN (Zamindari): Founded around 1705 by Raja Udai Singh, who was the son of Bhupat Singh, a leader of the ancient Gaur clan of Rajputs settled at Chandra and Katesar in Sitapur, U.P. He established Pawayan, the largest estate in the erstwhile Rohilkhand Area and the present District Shahjahanpur in U.P. Gaur Rajputs originated from Gaur Desh (country), in West Bengal. The Gaur Rajputs had dispersed to various parts of Northern and Central India after the onslaught of the Persian raider, Bhaktiar Khilji, around 1205.
This clan was known as great riders and fighters; they were supporters of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. They also supported Rana Sanga at the Battle of Khanwa against the Mugal King Babur.
Kachwaha


Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur on an inspection tour in the Middle East in World War II
The Kachwaha are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan who ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in India such as Dhundhar, Alwar, and Maihar, while the largest and oldest state was Amber, now part of Jaipur. The Maharaja of Jaipur is regarded as the head of the extended Kachwaha clan. There are approximately 71 subclans of the Kachwaha, including the Rajawat, Shekhawat, Sheobramhpota, Naruka, Nathawat, Khangarot, and Kumbhani. They claim descent from Kusha, the younger of the twin sons of Rama.
The Kachwaha clan ruled in Jaipur right up until modern times. The last ruling Maharaja of Jaipur was Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur (1917–1970). Shortly after India's independence in 1948, Sawai Man Singh peacefully acceded the state of Jaipur to the Government of India. He then was appointed the first Rajpramukh of Rajasthan.
Minhas
Minhas Rajputs are Suryavanshis and claim descent from Rama a legendary king of Ayodhya. In Rajputana, their closest cousins are the Kachwaha and Bargujar Rajputs of Jaipur. They trace their ancestry to the Ikshvaku dynasty of Northern India (The same clan in which Lord Rama was born. He, therefore is the 'kuldevta'(family deity) of the Hindu Minhas Rajputs). Specifically, they claim descent from Kusha younger of the twin sons of Rama, hero of the Ramayana, to whom patrilineal descent from Surya is in turn ascribed.
Pakhral
Pakhral Rajput is a sub clan of Minhas Rajput. Pakhral Rajputs are the most dynamic rulers in the history of sub-continent and they deserve for holding the dinstinction of being the hero of sub-continent. The founders of the city and state of Jammu and its rulers from ancient times to 1948 C.E. Ansistors of Pakhral Rajputs are mostly Hindus, in early 18th and 19th century mostly Pakhral Rajputs embraced Islam and moved from Jaipur and Rajastan(India) to Kashmir and Pakistan. Punjab specially the area of Potohar and Azad jammu Kashmir is the origin of Pakhral Rajputs.
Mirpur Azad jamu Kashmir and the Rawalpindi District mostly named as the area of potohar is very famous as the area of Pakhral Rajputs. Raja is mostly used as a title in Pakhral Rajputs which is derived from the word Rajput.
Pundir
The Pundir (also spelled Pandeer, Pandir, Pundhir, Pundeer, Poondir or Poondeer) is a Suryavanshi branch of Rajputs. The word itself is derived from the Sanskrit word Purandara literally meaning "the destroyer of forts". The Pundir Rajputs hold riyasat in Nahan, Garhwal, Nagaur and Saharanpur where their Kuldevis are situated. Their shakha is Koolwal and their Kuldevis are Shakumbhri Devi in Saharanpur and Rajasthan along with Punyakshini Devi in Garhwal with their gotra being Pulastya and Parashar.
Elliot writes that in the Haridwar region of Uttar Pradesh, where they are most prominent today, over 1,440 villages are claimed by Pundir Rajputs with high concentrations in the districts of Dehradun, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Aligarh and Etawah. According to the British census of 1891 the population of the Pundir Rajputs was recorded at approximately 29,000.
The Pundir clan has its origins with Raja Pundarik, the fourth king in line after Kusha. Pundarik is revered as a Rishi and his temple is situated in Katheugi village of the Kullu district in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The rishi is depicted as a white Nāga and in the Puranic lore Pundarik is the name of a White Naga and the legend of Pundarik Rishi also affirms his birth as a Naga from an earthen pot. Kusha, the second born of Sita and Ram, is said to have been the progenitor of the Pundirs.
Naru
The Narus of Hoshiarpur District claim that their ancestor was a Suryavanshi Rajput of Muttra, named Nipal Chand, and descended from Raja Ram Chand. He was converted in the time of Mahmud of Ghazni and took the name of Naru Shah. Naru Shah settled at Mau in Jalandhar, Whence his son, Ratan Pal, founded Phillaur hence founded the four Naru parganas of Haryana, Bajwara, Sham Chaurasi and Ghorewaha in Hoshiarpur and that of Bahram in Jullunder. The chief men of these parganas are still called Rai or Rana. Some kept Brahmans of the Baadeo got.
Mahmud of Ghazni conquered the country on both sides of the Sutlej, and placed Talochar in charge of it. After leaving Mau he made Bajwara his capital, but the attacks made on him by the hill chiefs compelled him to invoke Mahmud's aid, and Pathan troops were sent him who were cantoned along the foot of the Siwaliks and are still settled there. Rana Sihra, Naru Khan's descendant in the fifth generation, returned to Ajudhia, whence Talochar had come, and re-conquered his ancient kingdom, over which he appointed a viceroy. He died at his way back to Punjab at Sunam. His third descendant Rana Mal, had five sons-Kilcha, Bhoja, Dhuni, Massa and Jassa, who divided the territory. Kilcha got the Hariana ilaqa with 750 villages, including Nandachuar, Bahram, Bulhowal, with the title of Tika. Bhoja got Bajwara, Sham Chaurasi, Ahrana, Ajram, Baroti and their dependent villages. Dhuni got the Dhuniat, i.e., Patti, Khanaura, Muna, Badla, Harta, etc. Naru Khan's grandson Baripal had already seized Bhangala, and Dasuya. Basically Naru Rajputs are Surajbansi Rajputs.
Rathore
The Rathore are a major Rajput clan originally descended from the Gahadvala Dynasty in Kannauj in Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the end of the British Raj in 1947 they were rulers in 14 different princely states in Marwar, Jangladesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. The largest and oldest among these was Jodhpur, in Marwar and Bikaner. The Maharaja of Jodhpur is regarded as the head of the extended Rathore clan of Hindu Rajputs.
At the time of Tod's list in 1820, the Rathore clan had 24 branches, including the Barmera, Bika, Boola, Champawat, Dangi, Jaitawat, Jaitmallot, Jodha, Khabaria, Khokhar, Kotaria, Kumpawat, Mahecha, Mertiya, Pokharan, Mohania, Mopa, Randa, Sagawat, Sihamalot, Sunda, Udawat, Vanar, and Vikramayat.
Sisodia


Water holding tank at Chittorgarh Fort, historic seat of the Sisodia clan
The Sisodias are Suryavanshi Rajputs claiming descent from Lord Rama through his son Lava. They were known as the Ranas of Mewar, which was a princely state under the British Raj. The earliest history of the clan claims that they moved from Lahore to Shiv Desh or Chitor in 134 AD. They established themselves as rulers of Mewar in 734 AD, ruling from the fortress of Chittorgarh. They trace their descent from Bappa Rawal (ruled 1734–1753), eighth ruler of the Guhilot Dynasty.
Saharan
Saharan (gotra) means (King of the world). Saharan (Gotra) is an ancient Kshatriya Rajput. They use title Shah, Rana, Chaudhary and Malik. Earlier they were in Central Asia than they migrated to northern salt-range Punjab region in India and at the time of Alexander invasion in Punjab in 326 B.C. they fought with Alexander The Great and than Saran along with Sihag, Punia , Godara, Beniwal and Johiya migrated to north Rajasthan region known as Jangladesh and ruled there till 15th century.
Megasthenes described them as Syrieni (Saharan), a powerful warrior race in his book Indica. Some of them adopted the profession of agriculture and consider as Jatts. They claim fom Yaduvanshi king Maharaja Gaj of Ghazni. Some Saharans in India and Pakistan still claim from Kshatriya rajputs and their lineage go to Lord Rama (Ram Chandra)included Saharans of Syedwala in Punjab.
Some Saharan come from Bhatti Rajput and some connect their linage to Saharan who was the brother of Sindu (Two rulers of Gujrat, India). Some come from Raja Saharan of Thanesar who embraced Islam and this raja also belonged to Gujrat. Some Saharans come from Nagavanshi Rajput linage which also go back to Lord Rama.
Chittorgarh Fort, the seat of the Sisodia kingdom of Mewar, was the site of the three most famous Jauhars recorded in history. When defeat in a siege became certain, the ladies of the fort committed collective self-immolation (Jauhar). Wearing their wedding dresses, and holding their young children by the hand, the women would commit themselves to the flames of a massive, collective pyre, thereby escaping molestation and dishonour at the hands of the invading army. This immolation would occur during the night, to the accompaniment of Vedic chants. Early the next morning, the men would wear saffron-colored garments, apply the ash from the pyres of their wives and children on their foreheads, and put a tulsi leaf in their mouth. Then the gates would be opened and men would ride out for one final, hopeless battle in which death was certain (performing Saka). These acts of Jauhar and Saka are still remembered and have become an important part of Rajput culture and ethos.
Major Chandravanshi clans

Bhati
Bhati Rajputs are a Chandravanshi Rajput clan from the Jaiselmer region of western Rajasthan. The Maharajas of Jaisalmer trace their lineage back to Jaitsimha, a ruler of the Bhati Rajput clan. The major opponents of the Bhati Rajputs were the powerful Rathor clans of Jodhpur and Bikaner. They used to fight battles for the possession of forts, waterholes or cattle. Jaisalmer was positioned strategically and was a halting point along a traditional trade route traversed by the camel caravans of Indian and Asian merchants. The route linked India to Central Asia, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Africa and the West.
Bhati Rajputs were proficient horse riders, marksman and warriors. Their reign spread to the Punjab, Sindh and beyond, to Afghanistan. The City of Ghazni was named after a brave Bhatti warrior. In Lahore, a monument exists to this day, which is called the Bhati Gate, named so probably because it opens in the direction of the "Sandal Bar", an area ruled by Rai Sandal Khan Bhati Rajput. They earned too much by imposing the taxes levies on the passing Carvans.they were known as a great shooter with Gun.
Chandelas
In the early 10th century, the Chandelas (Chandravanshi lineage) ruled the fortress-city of Kalinjar. A dynastic struggle (c.912-914 CE) among the Pratiharas provided them with the opportunity to extend their domain. They captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior (c.950) under the leadership of Dhanga (ruled 950-1008).
Jadeja
Jadeja (Gujarati: જાડેજા Hindi: जाडेजा) is the name of a major clan of Yadavs or Chandravanshi Rajputs.
Chudasama
The Chudasama and their collaterals the Raizada are a branch of the Lunar or Chandravanshi line of Rajputs, who trace their origin to Lord Krishna.
Katoch
The Katoch clan of the Chandravanshi lineage is considered to be one of the oldest surviving clan in the world. They first find mention in the mythological Hindu epic The Mahabharta and the second mentions in the recorded history of Alexander the Great's war records. One of the Indian kings who fought Alexander on the river Beas was a Katoch king Parmanand Chandra famously known as Porus. In past centuries, they ruled several princely states in the region. The originator of the clan was Rajanaka Bhumi Chand. Their famous Maharaja Sansar Chand-II was a great ruler. The ruler Rajanaka Bhumi Chand Katoch founded the Jwalaji Temple (now in Himachal Pradesh).
Bhangalia
The Bhangalia clan are the erstwhile rulers of Chota and Burra Bhangal in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh.
Pahore
The Pahore (also known as Pahur or Pahor) are a clan of Chandravanshi Rajputs. They use Khan or Jam or Malik as title.
Soam OR Som
Soam (also known as Som or Somvanshi) are Chandravanshi Rajputs. They have descended from Mahabharata. They are the direct descendants of Som (or Moon). As the name "SOM" indicates, this community belongs to lunar dynasty. King Dushyant, his son Bharat, all Pandavas and Kauravas were Somvanshis(Chandravanshi Rajputs).
Tomaras
Tomaras, or Tuvars, or Tanwars, are Chandravanshi Rajputs, and descended from Mahabharat's great hero, Arjun, through his son Abhimanyu, and grandson, Parikshat. Chakravarti Samrat (King) Yudhishtra, founded Indraprastha, present day Delhi.
King Anangpal conquered and re-established the Delhi Kingdom in CE 792 and founded the city of 'Dhillika,' (modern Delhi). Besides Delhi, He covered western U.P. and most of present day Haryana and Punjab. Tomar's rule lasted until CE 1162 when last Tomar King Anangpal II appointed Prithviraj Chauhan, his grandson (his daughter's son), and King of Ajmer- as 'catetaker,' since his own sons were very young at that time. According to the accounts kept by Tomar/ Tanwar 'Jagas,' King Anangpal Tomar appointed Prithviraj Chauhan as caretaker only when he went on a religious pilgrimage. It is also said by Tanwar 'Jagas' that when King Anangpal returned, Prithviraj refused to hand over the kingdom to him. Jagas are a caste in Rajasthan who are hereditary keepers of genealogical records of Rajputs.
Major Agnivanshi clans

Bhaal
The bhaal gotra of rajputs belong to Garhmukteshwar Bulandshar Siyana Aligarh and many parts of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.There are 62 villages in Garhmukteshwar and Siyana tehseel.In these villages various gotras of Rajput/Chauhans are lived and married in different gotras of rajput clans.Mainly all rajput gotra of this area called Chauhan and this palace called Chauhanpuri.The gotras are mostly Vats Gahlot Bhaal Kuchawah Kemlaksha Bhati Parihar Tomar and many more.
Chauhan
The Chauhan (also spelled as Nirban) are of Agnivanshi lineage. Their state was initially centered around khetri, khandela, alsisar malsisar, srimadhopur, alwar, jhunjhunu, sikar, churu, According to legend and clan history, the Nirwan or Nirban are with Maharana Pratap against Akbar in Haldighati Battle. Nirban's have many gotras, most of these gotras are Baloji, Pithoraji, Kaluji.
Another clam using the same name originated as feudatories of the Pratiharas and rose to power in the wake of the decline of that power. Their state was initially centered around Sambhar in present-day Rajasthan. In the 11th century, they founded the city of Ajmer which became their capital. In the 12th century, their the then King Prithviraj Chauhan acquired Delhi from his maternal grand father, the then King Anangpal. Their most famous ruler was Prithviraj Chauhan, who won the First Battle of Tarain against an invading Muslim army but lost the Second Battle of Tarain the following year. This loss heralded a prolonged period of Muslim rule over northern India.
Mori
The Mori clan is one of the 36 royal clans of Rajputs & falls in 24 eka clans which are not divided further. Mori Rajputs are sub clan of Parmara Rajputs of Agnivansh. They ruled Chittor & Malwa till early part of eighth century & built the biggest fort in India at Chittor in the reign of Chitrangad Mori (Ref: Archaeological survey of India)). Last king of Mori Dynasty of Chittor was Maan Singh Mori who fought against Arab invasion. Qasim attacked Chittor via Mathura. Bappa, of guhilote (Sisodia) dynasty, was a commander in Mori army. After defeating Bin Qasim, Bappa Rawal obtained Chittor in dowry from Maan Singh Mori in 734 A.D. Then onwards Chittor is ruled by Sisodia Rajputs.Later Mori & Parmar Rajputs continued to rule Malwa until Muslim incursions. Of late they remained as smaller royal states & jagirdars in the central India in present state of Madhya Pradesh, presently settled in Dhar, Ujjain, Indore, bhopal, Narsinghpur & Raisen.
Naga
The Naga (Sanskrit: नाग) were one of the ancient most kshatriya tribes of India who evolved from Suryawansha (the Solar Clan of ancient Kshtriyas of India) and ruled large parts of the country at different times. They spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. Anthropologist Gelek Lonbsang believes they have distant ancestry with East Asians based on their similar physical features.[1] The demi-god tribe called Suparnas (in which Garuda belonged) were arch-rivals of the Nagas. However, the Nagas near Kashmir seems to be the original abode of all of them. Places like Anantnag attests this theory.
The worshippers of Nāga were supposedly known as Nāgā or Nāgil. Some Nair and Bunt clans claims to be of Nagvanshi origin. The trace of nagvanshi can be find out in Chotanagpur i.e. Jharkhand (Rai) community and (Shahdeo) community are also nagvanshi Rajput.
Paramara
Paramaras are Agnivanshi Rajputs that were near-neighbours of the Solankis. They originated as feudatories of the Rashtrakutas and rose to power in the 10th century. They ruled Malwa and the area at the border between present-day Gujarat and Rajasthan. Bhoja, the celebrated king of Malwa, belonged to this dynasty. In the 12th century, the Paramaras declined in power due to conflict with the Solankis and succumbed to attack from the Delhi sultanate in 1305.
Solanki
Solankis are an Agnivanshi group descended from the Chalukyas of Karnataka who ruled much of peninsular India between the 6th and 12th centuries. In the 10th century, a local branch of the clan established control over Gujarat and ruled a state centered around the town of Patan. They went into decline in the 13th century and were displaced by the Vaghela

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Old September 4th, 2011, 06:57 AM   #2

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Under which branch do Janjua Rajputs fall into? There are many in Punjab. The British-Pakistani boxer Amir Khan is a Janjua for example.
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Old September 4th, 2011, 07:37 AM   #3
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Born Belligerent, kindly provide proper attribution for your article. Thanks.
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Old September 6th, 2011, 04:04 AM   #4

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The Janjua Rajputs are a branch of the ancient Pandava Dynasty. The Pandavas were a Chandravanshi Kuru branch of the ancient Vedic Aryans of India descending primarily from the legendary vedic King Pururava (also known as Puru) and lived in about the 14th century BC. "General Alexander Cunningham of India concluded the Janjua to be of Aryan origin" (Panjab Castes, Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Delhi 2002, p99). Arjuna, the famous Pandava Kshatriya hero of the Mahabharata epic is known as the most prominent father of this dynasty. Prince Arjun was the first cousin of the famed Hindu prince Lord Krishna and married Krishna's sister, Subhadra, to extend his dynasty. "It was Prince Arjun who carried out Krishna's funeral rites" (Arjuna in the Mahabhrata by Ruth Cecily Katz, University of South Carolina, 1989, back matter).

The apical ancestor of the Janjuas - Maharaja Janamejaya (until c. 1000 BC), King of Hastinapur [the capital of which was Indraprasta (modern day Delhi)] who was the great grandson of Arjuna Pandava (through his father Parikshit, son of Abhimanyu son of Arjuna). Maharaja Janamejaya was also known as the "Serpent Killer" after the famous mass revenge killing of all snakes and the "Nagas" people - people possibly of Tibetan origin who were rulers of a nearby state responsible for the assassination of his father Parikshit. His descendants were also known historically as the Pandavas and the Pauravas.

India's other name Bharat or Bharat-Varsh is actually named after a forefather of the Pandava dynasty, Bharat (until c. 1300BC). Bharat-Varsh means "Kingdom of Bharat" ("Recruiting, Drafting, and Enlisting (Military and Society, 1)"Peter Karsten, 1998, USA, p119). The Mahabharata epic is a narration which records a war between Bharat's later descendants the Pandavas and their cousins the Kauravas for the throne of Hastinapur. This epic is also believed to be the world's longest poem and Janamejaya was responsible for the retelling of it. The Pandavas were also known as Pauravas after another prominent ancestor Puru.

The Pauravas ruled Kekaya which was widely known as the Kingdom of the Puru/Pauravas Clan and it was Rai Por or more popularly known in the west as King Porus who fought Alexander the Great in 326 BC (in what is now Jhelum, Pakistan) in the famed Battle of the Hydaspes. It is said: “Unlike Darius, Porus fought aboard his elephant until the end..In victory Alexander treated Porus with the dignity reserved for a great warrior reinstating him a vassal king and sealing the bond of friendship” (The Horse in the Ancient World by Ann Hyland 2002 Sutton Publ.,p161). According to Arian, Alexander is said to have asked King Porus "How would you like me to treat you?" to which Porus famously replied "As a Raja (king)". The answer touched Alexander, who in return allowed the Raja of the Pauravas to retain his Kingdom (Alexander the Great - Nick McCarty, Carlton Books, 2004, p111). The "List of Indian monarchs" gives an account of the period of rule of the Bharata-Puru-Pandava-Pauravas-Janjua Shahi phase from approx 1600BC to 1026AD.

It must also be noted here that although the Janjuas are essentially Pandavas, the famous Jarral Rajput, a powerful Rajput dynasty who ruled Rajaur for well over 600 years were also Pandavas by origin through Nanak Rao, the brother of "Maharaja of the Kurus" Janamejaya. A known scion of the Pandava dynasty through Janamejaya became a very well known and recognised warrior king in his time. His name was Rai Janjua Paal. He was famous for his conquests and warlike temperament and was believed to be the last emperor of Hastinapur. He named his branch as Janjua henceforth and this name has remained in his dynasty. From about 964AD, the Janjua chief Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara Sri Jayapaladeva (Epithets known from the Bari Kot inscriptions) succeeded the Brahmin Hindu Shahi Emperor Bhimdev. The Janjua Shahiya emperors now ruled from Ghandar (Kandahar of Afghanistan) to the whole of Punjab in what was known as the second phase of the Hindu Shahiya or the Janjua Shahi Dynasty.

Famed ethnologists and Indo researchers Sir Alexander Cunningham (Coins of Medieval India Reprint. Varanasi:1967 p56,p62), Elliot and Dowson (The History of India as told by it's own historians [Indian repr.1962].vol.i, p.22,425-26) and Sachau (Alberuni's India London 1914, vol.ii, p393-94) led research into the origins of the Pala Hindu Shahiya, the second dynasty that succeeded the initial Brahmin Dev Shahiyas. Through independent research they concluded that the origins of Emperor Jayapala Shah was in fact in the Janjua Rajput. In 1973's Al-Biruni International Congress in Pakistan, Dr Hussain Khan presented a paper in called "An Interpretation of Al-Biruni's Account of the Hindu Shahiyas of Kabul" which also confirmed the same findings. Finally, the Janjuas own genealogy records the names of the Janjua Shahi Jayapala as well as the continued descendants of his House (Gazetteer of the Jhelum District, Lahore 1904, p93).

Jayapala was challenged by the armies of Sabuktigin and his son Sultan Mahmud towards the end of his reign as emperor. According to the Minháj ad-Dīn in his chronicle Tabaqát-i Násiri (Tabaqát-i Násiri, H. G. Raverty's trans., Vol.1, p.82), writes a testament to the political and powerful stature of Emperor Jayapala Shah, "Jayapála, who is the greatest of all the ráis (kings) of Hind..." Upon being captured after a fierce battle with Sultan Mahmud, Jayapala was ransomed and upon his release, "he ordered the construction of a funeral pyre. Mounting and setting it alight, he nobly perished in the flames" (The Last 2 Dynasties of the Sáhis Prof. Abdur Rehman, Delhi Renaissance publishing house. p147). Misra wrote:"Jaypala was perhaps the last Indian ruler to show such spirit of aggression, so sadly lacking in later Rajput kings" (R.G.Misra, Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders Up to 1206 AD, Anu Books, repr.1992).

Jayapala's son, prince Anandapala who ascended the throne (in about March/April 1002AD) already proved an able warrior and General in leading many battles prior to his ascension. According to Adáb al-Harb (p.307-10) in about 990, "the arrogant but ambitious Raja of Lahore Bharat, having put his father in confinement, marched on the country of Jayapála with the intention of conquering the districts of Nandana, Jailum and Tákeshar." Jayapala instructed prince Anandapala to repel the opportunist Raja Bharat. Anandapala defeated Bharat and took him prisoner in the battle of Takeshar and marched on Lahore and captured the city and extended his father's kingdom yet further. During Anandpala's reign many losses were incurred on his kingdom by the Ghaznavids. During the battle of Chach between Sultan Mahmud and Anandapala, it is stated that "a body of 30,000 Gakhars fought alongside as soldiers for the Shahi Emperor and incurred huge losses for the Ghaznavids" (The Last 2 Dynasties of the Sahis Prof. Abdur Rehman, Delhi 1988,p152). It is also mentioned in the same text that "the Gakhars (or Khokhars) formed a very significant force in the armies of the Sáhis". Despite the heavy losses of the enemy, he eventually lost the battle and suffered much financial and territorial loss. This was Anandapala's last stand against Sultan Mahmud. Anandpala eventually signed a treaty with the Ghaznavid empire in 1010AD and shortly a year later died a peaceful death. R.C Majumdar (D.V. Potdar Commemoration Volume, Poona 1950, p.351) compared him ironically to his dynasty's ancient famous ancestor "Porus, who bravely opposed Alexander but later submitted and helped in subduing other Indian rulers." And Tahqíq Má li'l-Hind (p 351) finally revered Anandapala in his legacy as noble and courageous.

Tirlochanpála, the son of Anandapala, ascended the throne in about 1011AD. Inheriting a reduced kingdom, he immediately set about expanding his kingdom into the Siwalik Hills, the region of the Rai of Sharwa. His kingdom now extended from the River Indus to the upper Ganges valley. According to Al-Biruni, Tirlochanpála "was well inclined towards the Muslims" and was honourable in his loyalty to his father's peace treaty to the Ghaznavids. He later rebelled against Sultan Mahmud and was eventually assassinated by some of his own mutinous troops in 1021-22AD, an assassination which was believed to have been instigated by the Rai of Sharwa who became his arch-enemy due to Tirlochanpala's expansion into the Siwalik ranges (The Last 2 Dynasties of the Sahis Prof. Abdur Rehman, Delhi 1988,p166). Trilochanpala was romanticised in Punjabi folklore as the Last Punjabi ruler of Punjab.

Bhímapála, son of Tirlochanpala, succeeded his father in 1021-22AD. He was referred to by Utbí (vil.ii, p.151) as "Bhīm, the Fearless" due to his courage and valour. Considering his kingdom was at its lowest point, possibly only to the control of Nandana, he admirably earned the title of fearless from his enemy's own chronicle writer. He is known to have led the battle of Nandana personally and seriously wounding the Commander of the Ghaznavid army Muhammad bin Ibrahim at-Tāī. He ruled only five years after his father before meeting his death in 1026AD. Bhimpala's remaining descendants, Rudrapal and his brothers Diddápála and Anangapāla had settled in Kashmir and played a major role in the court of Kashmirian king Ananta (1028-63AD). According to the Rājtarahginī (vii, p.145), Rudrapal proved himself extravagant in personal valour by crushing the rebels of the king, as commander in chief of the Kashmiri royal army. Al-Biruni, despite living under Sultan Mahmud's grace, praises the house of Jayapala: “ We must say that in all their grandeur, they never slackened in the ardent desire of doing that which is good and right, that they were men of noble sentiment and noble bearing ”. In Kalhana in Rājtarahginī, writes of the Janjua Shahis: “Where is the Shahi dynasty with its ministers, its kings, and its great grandeur? ... The very name of the splendor of Shahi kings has vanished. What is not seen in dream, what even our imagination cannot conceive, that dynasty accomplished with ease ”.

Raja Dhrupet Dev Janjua ruled Mathura state in about 1150AD. Dhrupet Dev was also the ruler of the Mandu fort of the Siwalik hills. He was well known for being a Pandava descendant through Prince Arjun's great grandson Maharaja Janamejaya. Raja Dhrupet's rule of Mathura ended in 1195AD when Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the general of the Ghorid army, attacked Mathura and exiled the ruling royal family. According to Mohyal historians (Gulshan-e-Mohyali) Raja Dhrupet's younger brother Raja Shripat Dev, accompanied the exile back to the Siwalik hills. Shripat Dev later, "established his dominion at Katasraj (old name Namaksar) in Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan, Distt. Jhelum." The Mohyal commanders in chief of the Janjua army at this point were Rai Tirlok Nath Bali and Bam Dev Bhimwal (Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province by Horace Arthur Rose, 1990, p134). Regarding the Janjuas' descent from the Pandavas dynasty, the Bali and Bhimwal generals of Raja Dhrupet Dev of Mathura, recorded that the Janjua Raja Dhrupet Dev was the descendant of Emperor Janamejaya. "This reference was recorded in 1195AD" (Culture and Political History of Kashmir by Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, MD Publ. Ltd., 1994, p637, p669, p670). Sir Lepel H Griffin K.C.S.I. had also recorded in the early 1900s "the Janjuas were Pandavas in origin" (Punjab Chiefs, L.H.Griffin, 1909 Lahore, p213).

Raja Dhrupet Dev was the father of a famous Janjua Chief Raja Ajmal Dev Janjua who embraced Islam in the 12th century and rose to become the next rising force of the Janjua Rajput. He followed the Islamic tradition of changing his name after conversion but was better known as Raja Mal Khan. He was among the first Muslim Rajputs recorded in Indian history. Raja Mal's conversion took place whilst he was in his teens and he inclined towards Islamic philosophy of the Sufis brought by the Dervishes of the Chistiya order, before the armies of Shahabudin Ghauri entered into the Indian Potohar Plateau. Raja Mal Khan migrated from Mandu fort in the Siwalik Hills to the Koh-i-Jud and settled at Rajgarh which he later renamed Mal-Kot (Malot). He re-conquered the Salt Ranges of Punjab to establish the dominion which his forefathers lost almost two centuries earlier to the Ghaznavids (Journal of Central Asia Vol. XIII. No.1, 1990,p.78). [Malot was originally called Shahghar or Rajghar - meaning home of the Shahis/Kings but was later changed to Malot (Mal-Kot) in recognition of its famous King, Raja Mal.]

The Tarikh-e-Alfi of the Ghorids mentions the rebellious behaviour of Raja Mal Khan towards the Delhi Sultanate. It records that a "Rai Mal" of the mountains between Lahore and Kabul excited a rebellion against them and intercepted communications between Lahore and Ghazni (Chronicles of Early Janjuas Dr Hussain Khan, iUniverse, 2003, p16). There is still today remnants of an ancient fort in Malot, Chakwal which was initially built by the Shahis and later rebuilt by Raja Mal Khan. It is also inscribed that the last Hindu Shahi prince Raja Mal embraced Islam at this place. Raja Mal Khan was also the first ruler to begin the mining of salt in the Salt Ranges of Kallar Kahar and in the Khewra Salt Mines of Punjab which is currently the world's second largest salt mine. Other Janjua descendants include Ranial/Dhamial Rajputs, Tanoli Rajputs (also spelt Tanaulis/ Tanawalis), Pulowal Rajputs, Hindwal Rajputs and Khakha Rajputs who are essentially the descendants of Raja Bhir, Raja Tanoli and Raja Khakha respectively. Raja Bhir, Tanoli, Khakha, Jodh and Kala are all sons of the famous Janjua chief, Raja Mal Khan Janjua. (for further details see Chakri Rajgan - Home )

The Janjua Rajputs are a prominent tribe of Punjab (both Pakistani and Indian Punjab). They have a history that spans centuries through various notable rulers, tribal chiefs, princes and kings since the time of the Mahabharat to the present age through Chief of Army Staff, Pakistan -General Asif Nawaz Khan Janjua. They were amongst the earliest Rajput converts to Islam and established their own Riyasats (kingdoms) during the 12th century which up until the early 19th century remained in their respective control. Janjuas rebelled against the Delhi Sultanate in the early 13th century and also later aided the Mughal conqueror Babur's route into India with other allied mountain tribes and served in the Mughal army in their conquests of India. Many forts within Punjab are still remnant of their royal past, such as the Kusak fort, Sohava fort, Girjaak fort in Makhiala Jhelum, Malot fort in Chakwal District, Nagi fort, Dalowal fort, Dhandot fort, Kath Saghral and Masral fort, Dhak Janjua fort, Akrand fort and many more. They have played a major part in Punjabi history in their regions through their alliances and rebellions with invaders and other mountainous warrior tribes.
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Old September 6th, 2011, 04:24 AM   #5

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Born Belligerent, kindly provide proper attribution for your article. Thanks.
i'm just trying to explore about them...
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Old September 6th, 2011, 05:34 AM   #6

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Trilochanpala was romanticised in Punjabi folklore as the Last Punjabi ruler of Punjab.
You probably mean last Hindu Punjabi ruler? I can name countless local Punjabi rulers the last significant one being of course Ranjit Singh.

Anyways thanks for the reply, i was vaguely aware of the Janjuas links to the Shahi dynasty but your post explained it very well in detail. Even today the area from Jhelum to Mirpur is full of Janjuas. A tough hardworking people, they are famous for being farmers and soldiers. They make up a large part of the Pakistan Army and were also heavily recruited by the British in the world wars.

Last edited by Shaheen; September 6th, 2011 at 05:57 AM.
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Old September 6th, 2011, 06:55 AM   #7

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You probably mean last Hindu Punjabi ruler? I can name countless local Punjabi rulers the last significant one being of course Ranjit Singh.

Anyways thanks for the reply, i was vaguely aware of the Janjuas links to the Shahi dynasty but your post explained it very well in detail. Even today the area from Jhelum to Mirpur is full of Janjuas. A tough hardworking people, they are famous for being farmers and soldiers. They make up a large part of the Pakistan Army and were also heavily recruited by the British in the world wars.
But they were the first to get converted into Islam and some are still writing Hindu Punjabi Rajputs. They claim to be descendant from King Puru. There are many theories......
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Old September 6th, 2011, 07:01 AM   #8

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You know, its easier just to put this link
Rajput_clans Rajput_clans

rather than copying whole page.
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Old September 6th, 2011, 07:09 AM   #9

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You know, its easier just to put this link
Rajput clans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

rather than copying whole page.
I personally felt that i should give some respect to them...........
so i did it....
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Old September 6th, 2011, 07:44 AM   #10

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http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:A...WnU-7uTEoi9Yli

The Rajput's are mainly found in majority in modern Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh in India.....
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