Maratha commander Sadashivrao Bhau
The Jat ruler Suraj Mal
Before the battle of Panipat between the forces of the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau and the Afghans
under Ahmad Shāh Abdālī in 1761 the Marathas tried to make alliances with several rulers of North India.
The Marathas tried to convince the Hindu Rajput rulers of North India to join them in the battle against the
outside invader Ahmad Shāh Abdālī. But the Hindu Rajput rulers refused to support the Marathas because
the Marathas had levied heavy taxes on the Rajputs bevore. The only major ruler of North India who
agreed to join forces with the Marathas was the Jat ruler Suraj Mal and a Maratha-Jat alliance was forged.
But shortly before the battle of Panipat the Jat ruler Suraj Mal decided to abandon the Marathas.
This is a description of the situation before the battle of Panipat which explains why Suraj Mal abandoned the Marathas:
Before the battle of Panipat A meeting (conference) was held in the camp of Raja Bhau in which 551 delegates participated. Sadashivrao Bhau was made the chairman. After this Ramrai, an old Pandit of Haryana blessed the conference after enchanting Veda mantras.
In this conference the delegates expressed their notions as under:
"Sadashivrao Bhau is born in the house of Chitpawan Brahmins who are staunch followers of religion and true patriots. All the Hindus of northern India should follow them. Whether Hindus or Muslims all will be benefited by our victory in this battle. A foreigner can never be good to us. Beware of split and division. Live united, union is strength.
Now the Rajas of Rajasthan (Hindu Rajput rulers) do not join Marathas who are the true followers of India's religion and culture, Abdali is foreigner and is the follower of a different faith. Formerly Abdali was a commander of Nadir Shah who looted a booty of million of rupees. Is there somebody to ask these kings, what benefit they had from that battle? Now after nineteen years Abdali has not returned to offer you any thing. Instead he invades us to seize out wealth, and the remaining limited wealth of the Mughal and the lives of thousand of people. The Rajas of Rajasthan (Hindu Rajput rulers) will not be with you, rather they are rejoicing to see you entangled with Abdali.
Their blood prefers to be subjected by foreigners than offer cooperation to their own brethren."
The Council appealed to Sujan Singh (Maharaja Suraj Mal) to express his views. He stated:
"Honourable Chairman! The principality of our country is in the hands of Peshwa (Maratha Empire) in these days. The Mughals are nominal emperors. Their court has become as arena of clowns and jokers. This time you come here as a leader of Maharastra Mandal sent by Peshwa. You have passed a distance of thousands of miles to save the country and religion. All our wealth and lives are dedicated to you. Do not fear Abdali. We stand for the prestige of Peshwa. These days Peshwa is like a sheet (Chadar) to cover the Hindu faith. You are his brother and you have a keen desire to strengthen India. You are our representative. We, on behalf of all the Hindus of India, offer you respect equal to the Peshwa. In the first instance you are a Brahmin and besides you are a crown of Hindus. We shall sacrifice our everything on you. My 25,000 soldiers, 60 cannons and all the army of Sarv-Khap panchayat of Haryana will be in your service. Think a little over my views, and the rest is up to you to accept it or not. You are elder and elders may only be beseecher. My suggestions are as under:
1. Before the battle provisions should be accumulated in a safe place like Brij or Bharatpur.
2. To accompany ladies in the battles our strength will be divided. They should therefore be kept in the fort of Deeg.
3. Establish the centre for heavy weapons and other articles at a distant place, and fight the battle with guerilla strategy.
4. Involve Abdali's army in a battle till summer falls, and in the summer make a vigorous attack
5. Do not harm a place of Mohammedan worship. Call a council in the court and choose a Mughal Prince as your chief and thus gain their sympathy. Do not touch precious articles kept in the fort so the Mohammedan may not use this opportunity to make propaganda against us. Invite as many Chiefs as possible to join you and no divide should occur in the organization.
6. All Mohammedan of India will remain with Abdali. Courtiers of Mughals are involved in conspiracy. You must not trust them, yet you must listen to them.
7. It is my special appeal to your chief commandant Ibrahim Gardi that he should consult me for war strategy. For five to six months, guerilla attacks should be only be made, that too only now and then. Keep your contact with Delhi.
8. The heavy loss in the battle of Kunjpura has familiarized Abdali of our power. For some time Abdali had been collecting provisions and troops from the Rohilla State. So the battle is to be fought decisively. Victory or loss is in the hand of God."
But Sadashivrao Bhau refused to listen to Suraj Mal which developed cracks in the Maratha-Jat alliance.