For those of who you don't know this, Jomon and Emishi were ancient ethnic group of Japan, both of them were conquered and later assimilated by Yayoi, those who didn't mix much became the modern Ainu. Modern Japanese and European anthropologist and scientist concluded Ainu and Jomon are actually what proto-mongoloid looked like, their genetics and skulls have no similarity to Caucasoid only their cranial facial appears like Caucasian, they have more in common with Amerindians than to any Europeans, Australoids, Melanesian ect Proto-mongoloid
= no East Asian appearance Neo-mongoloid
= evolved from proto-mongoloid due to adaption of the cold during the ice age. Japanese
= Neo-mongoloid with little to some proto-mongoloid admixture.
Japanese have 14% Jomon mtDNA + 36% Jomon Y-DNA
Okinawans have 60% Jomon Y-DNA + 30% Jomon mtDNA
Facial reconstruction of Jomon
Facial reconstruction of Emishi
Portrait of Emishi dating back in the year 1324 AD.
An recontruction of Jomon and Yayoi
Native Americans are also proto-mongoloid, but Eskimo, Inuit and some aboriginal Indian population are neo-mongoloid people like Chinese, Korean, Mongolian, Japanese.
Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Sussex said Kanzō Umehara considered the Ainu and Ryukyuans to have "preserved their proto-Mongoloid traits"."
" Mark J. Hudson Professor of Anthropology at Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Saga, Japan, said Japan was settled by a "Proto-Mongoloid" population in the "Pleistocene" who became the "Jōmon" and their features can be seen in the "Ainu" and "Okinawan" people. Hudson said that, later, during the "Yayoi period", the "Neo-Mongoloid" type entered Japan. Hudson said "genetically" Japanese people are "primarily" Neo-Mongoloid with Proto-Mongoloid "admixture". "
Ameridians with Proto-mongoloid traits
" Based on the studies of cranial and dental features, the Jomon population was Archaic Mongoloids, which was not adapted to the cold environment. The Ainu also, Hanihara states, belong to the Archaic Mongoloids, and they came to Japan "
"The Jomon and Ainu human remains share similarities (Ukmchara and Hanihara 1982). The characteristics of Ainu teeth show that they are Mongoloids (Hanihara 1979) " Genetic link between Asians and native Americans... [Hum Immunol. 2001] - PubMed - NCBI
Genetic link between Asians and native Americans: evidence from HLA genes and haplotypes.
We have been studying polymorphisms of HLA class I and II genes in East Asians including Buryat in Siberia, Mongolian, Han Chinese, Man Chinese, Korean Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwan indigenous populations in collaboration with many Asian scientists. Regional populations in Japan, Hondo-Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Ainu, were also studied. HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies were subjected to the correspondence analysis and calculation of DA distances. The correspondence analysis demonstrated several major clusters of human populations in the world. "Mongoloid" populations were highly diversified, in which several clusters such as Northeast Asians, Southeast Asians, Oceanians, and Native Americans were observed. Interestingly, an indigenous population in North Japan, Ainu, was placed relatively close to Native Americans in the correspondence analysis
. Distribution of particular HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was also analyzed in relation to migration and dispersal routes of ancestral populations. A number of alleles and haplotypes showed characteristic patterns of regional distribution. For example, B39-HR5-DQ7 (B*3901-DRB1*1406-DQB1*0301) was shared by Ainu and Native Americans. A24-Cw8-B48 was commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Maori in New Zealand, Orochon in Northeast China, Inuit, and Tlingit. These findings further support the genetic link between East Asians and Native Americans. We have proposed that various ancestral populations in East Asia, marked by different HLA haplotypes, had migrated and dispersed through multiple routes. Moreover, relatively small genetic distances and the sharing of several HLA haplotypes between Ainu and Native Americans suggest that these populations are descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.