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Old November 21st, 2012, 02:04 PM   #1

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Indian mtDNA Haplogroups : Through the Ages


Human journey through the course of History is a very fascinating one no doubt. People move from one land to another and become someone else in a course of few generations.

As one of the learn-ed members on this forum has pointed out - most of the well known writers focus on just the male lineages.

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Originally Posted by Frank81 View Post
Whatever the case, from my point of view mithocondrial DNA is as important as Y-DNA in order to clarify the demographic past of any given region. But for some reason, authors and people in general insist on focusing around the later only. And this is missleading.
This thread is an attempt to study the various mtDNA or female lineages which have comprised the human population inhabiting the land we now know as India through the course of History.

We must bear in mind that India is one of the most diverse linguistic regions in the world and the school History textbooks provide a very simplistic explanation for this. I have read in a few articles that the basic underlying racial similarity in the present Indian population stems from a small founder population of females in the remote past.

We must bear in mind that India has the second highest genetic diversity in the world, according to Wikipedia
Founder_effect Founder_effect
mtDNA is passed from Mother to offspring of both sexes while the Y-DNA is transferred from Father to Son --->
Haplogroup Haplogroup

The 3 most common mtDNA lineages found in India are :

M ---> M2, M3, M4, M6, M18, M25

R ---> R2, R5, R6

U ---> U2*, U2a, U2b, U2c, U2i, U7 ... mtDNA U is a subset of mtDNA R

Genetics_and_archaeogenetics_of_South_Asia Genetics_and_archaeogenetics_of_South_Asia


Related Thread ~

http://www.historum.com/asian-histor...languages.html
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Old November 21st, 2012, 02:45 PM   #2

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When modern humans left Africa, around 75ky BP ago they moved to the near east and south asia. But almost from 60ky-45ky BP neanderthalians migrated from Europe into the near east. The Shanidar and kebara caves are evidence for it. This incident is probably the reason why there is such a clear differentiation between African and non-african haplogroups.

But this is not only Africa making a home of mankind, south asia is as well very important for the evolution of non-african modern men.

Besides the aforementioned mt haplogroups there is as well N1d and N5 in India, so we have the two main groups M and N and the descendent of N, haplogroup R, with B, F and U. That makes the coast of Persia and India to the probable home of non-african mankind. From here they migrated to East Asia and South east asia and further to Australia, then to America and Northern Asia. 45ky BP they migrated back to the Near east and then to Europe and some even back to Africa.
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Old November 21st, 2012, 02:53 PM   #3

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Quote:
Originally Posted by beorna View Post
When modern humans left Africa, around 75ky BP ago they moved to the near east and south asia. But almost from 60ky-45ky BP neanderthalians migrated from Europe into the near east. The Shanidar and kebara caves are evidence for it. This incident is probably the reason why there is such a clear differentiation between African and non-african haplogroups.

But this is not only Africa making a home of mankind, south asia is as well very important for the evolution of non-african modern men.

Besides the aforementioned mt haplogroups there is as well N1d and N5 in India, so we have the two main groups M and N and the descendent of N, haplogroup R, with B, F and U. That makes the coast of Persia and India to the probable home of non-african mankind. From here they migrated to East Asia and South east asia and further to Australia, then to America and Northern Asia. 45ky BP they migrated back to the Near east and then to Europe and some even back to Africa.
It is interesting point that you have brought up beorna. Today I saw a nice blog post related to the topic :

More on the Paleolithic of Nefud (Arabia)

Quote:
Notice how the Jubbah sub-sites (the two Jebels) fall between two Levantine Mousterian sites: El Wad and Tabun C, attributed to Neanderthals. So it is very likely that this colonization represents an expansive attempt by West Asian Neanderthals.

Possibly related is the also recent finding (Delagnes 2012) of Mousterian in Yemen, dated to c. 55,000 BP. Therefore it would appear that after the expansion of Homo sapiens in Arabia, eventually leading to the colonization of Southern and Eastern Asia, as well as Near Oceania, there was an expansive tendency of Neanderthals as well, which may have helped to partly erase the genetic remnants of the out-of-Africa episode in the most fertile parts of Arabia Peninsula.
For what they were... we are: More on the Paleolithic of Nefud (Arabia)
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Old November 22nd, 2012, 05:11 AM   #4

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It seems, that there was even earlier "quarrel" between the Homo neanderthalensis and homo sapiens. We have neanderthalian findings in tabun 1, with C1, around 90-122ky BP. There are as well Qafzeh humans 90-120ky BP and humans of Skhul. The kebara cave contained again neanderthalians from 61-48ky BP. In Jebel faya we have a probably human settlement, dating 125ky BP.

So the story of human migration is much more complicated than "a single group left Africa 70ky BP and replaced all older human species".
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