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Old March 2nd, 2018, 09:16 AM   #511
Joined: Nov 2015
From: Punjab
Posts: 11

Mughals didn't have the shaved hairstyle depicted in the uppermost pic. It's a Rajput.
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Old March 4th, 2018, 07:16 AM   #512
Joined: Mar 2018
From: Pakistan
Posts: 18

I've written about them on my Facebook page

The Pashtuns are an ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan and are regarded as the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes. The Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Peshawar, Quetta, Karachi, Kandahar and Kabul have grown rapidly due to the influx of rural Pashtuns. Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans.

~ Origin ~
Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is somewhat unclear. There are many conflicting theories, some modern and others archaic, both among historians and the Pashtuns themselves.

~~ Ancient Pakhtas origin ~~
One theory suggests Pashtuns are descendants of the ancient Pakhtas people. These are suspected of being early Indo-Aryan Vedic nomadic tribe who lived on the eastern frontier of Arachosia as early as the 1st millennium BCE. Arachosia was one of the five Indus provinces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius. Arachosia covered what is today from southern KP to northern Balochistan and Kandahar to Multan. Greek historian Herodotus mentioned these people in his writings as “Pactyan”

~~ Hephthalite (Iranic/Turkic) origin ~~
According to Yu. V. Gankovsky, the Pashtuns may be descendants of White Huns (Hephthalites). They may have begun as a union of largely eastern Iranic tribes, which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis in the middle of the 1st millennium CE (~500AD) and is connected with the dissolution of the Hephthalite (White Huns) confederacy in ~550 AD. The Hephthalites (or White Huns) are suspected of being of Iranic or Turkic origin.

~~ Pakhtas Hephthalites mixed origin ~~
According to Abdul Hai Habibi, some scholars hold that Pasthuns (especially the Ghiljis) are the descendants of a mixed race of Hephthalites and Pakhtas, who merged sometime after the collapse of the Hephthalite (White Huns) confederacy in ~550 AD.

~~ Israelite origin ~~
The Lost Tribes of Israel theory is among the most famous origin theory of Pashtuns. The theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Nimat Allah al-Harawi, who compiled history for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 17th century. The 13th century Tabaqat-i Nasiri discusses the settlement of immigrant Bani Israel at the end of the 8th century CE in the Ghor region of Afghanistan, settlement attested by Jewish inscriptions in Ghor. These references to Bani Israel agree with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed, the tribe of Joseph, among other Hebrew tribes, settled in the frontier regions between Pakistan and Afghanistan. This oral tradition is widespread among the Pashtun tribes. One Pashtun tribe is referred to as Yusufzai, which in Pashto translates to "son of Joseph". A similar story is told by many historians, including the 14th century Ibn Battuta and 16th century Ferishta. One conflicting issue in the belief that the Pashtuns descend from the Israelites is that the Ten Lost Tribes were exiled by the ruler of Assyria, while Maghzan-e-Afghani says they were permitted by the ruler to go east. This inconsistency can be explained by the fact that Persia acquired the lands of the ancient Assyrian Empire when it conquered the Empire of the Medes and Chaldean Babylonia, which had conquered Assyria decades earlier. But no ancient author mentions such a transfer of Israelites further east, or no ancient extra-Biblical texts refer to the Ten Lost Tribes at all. The Israelite origin is indeed just a myth.

~ Tribes ~
The Pashtun tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups (pllarina or plarganey), each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four 'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, and the Karlani. The names are in reference to the sons of Qais Abdur Rashid, who is said to be the legendary founding father of the Pashtun people. According to the folklore, Qais had three sons: Sarbaṇ (سربڼ), Beṭ (بېټ), and Gharghax̌t (غرغښت). His sons founded three tribal confederacies named after them: Sarbani, Bettani, and Gharghashti. Qais also had an adopted son, Karlani Ormur Baraki who is progenitor of the Karlani tribe. There are multiple versions of the legend, including several regional variants that mention only one, two, or three of the four legendary brothers.

The Sarbani are the largest tribal group of Pashtuns. In Pakistan, Sarbani inhabit northern and eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan. The largest populations are found in the cities of Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi as well as Hazara Division (Mansehra, Abbottabad, Haripur). In Afghanistan, Sarbani inhabit Kandahar, Zabul, Uruzgan, Helmand, Nimroz, Farah, Herat, Badghis, Balkh, Kunduz, Nangarhar and Kunar. They include the following tribes.
Durrani > Achakzai, Alakozai, Alizai (Hanbhi), Badozai, Barakzai (Nawabi), Barech, Ishakzai, Kiral, Loni, Mohammadzai, Nurzai, Panjpai, Popalzai (Habibzai, Sadozai, Wazirzada), Zirak
Shinwari > Alisherkhel, Sangukhel, Sephai, Mullagori, Soonkhel, Kobizai, Mehmoodkhel, Yahyazai, Alizai
Yusufzai > Abakhel, Adokhe, Akazai, Babuzai, Balarkhel, Chagharzai, Degankhel, Hassanikhel, Hassanzai, Khanankhail, Kamalzai, Khwajakhel, Madakhel, Mirkhail, Mahabatkhel, Mulakhel, Khadarzai, Niamatkhel, Ranizai, Tahirkheli, Utmankhel, Kamalkhel
Other Groups > Chamkani, Ghoryakhel (Khalil, Mulagori, Kasi), Halimzai, Hazarbuz, Kakazai, Kheshgi, Mohmand, Muhammadzai, Sherpao, Storyani, Tareen, Tarkani, Salarzai, Zhmaryani

The Karlani mainly inhabit the Tribal Areas of Pakistan as well as eastern Afghanistan. In the 16th century, the Karlani founded the Karrani dynasty, which was the last dynasty to rule the Bengal Sultanate. They include the following tribes.
Rodbari (Wazirkhel, Kotwal), Afridi (Adamkhel, Kalakhel), Bangash (Baizai), Banuchi, Dawar, Dilazak, Khattak, Khogyani (Kharboni), Sherzad (Wazir), Mehsud (Bahlolzai, Shamankhel), Mangal, Muqbil, Orakzai (Mamozai, Zaimukht) Ormur Tirahi Turi Wardak Wazir (Ahmadzai. Darweshkhel, Utmanzai), Zadran, Zazi.

The Gharghasthi mainly inhabit Quetta and Attock Districts of Pakistan as well as Kandahar province of Afghanistan. They are further subdivided into:
Babai, Dawi, Gandapur (Hafizkhel, Ibrahimzai, Nattuzai, Yaqubzai), Jadoon, Kakar (Bazai, Jalalzai, Khudiadadzai, Mirdadzai), Ludin, Mandokhel, Mashwani, Musakhel, Nasozai, Panni (Barozai), Safi

The Bettani consist of the Ghilji and Lodi and mainly inhabit the Frontier Regions of Tank and Lakki Marwat in Khyber Pakhtunkwa and along the Trans-Indus Region (Mianwali) in Pakistan. They can also be found in the region between Zabul and Kabul provinces in Afghanistan. Jandola in FR Tank is considered by most as the "Bettani capital". They include the following tribes:
Ghilji > Akakhelm, Alikhel, Andar, Gulwal, Hotak, Ibrahimkhel, Ibrahimzai, Kharoti, Nasar, Paindakhel, Sulaimankhel (Ahmadzai, Jabbarkhel), Tarakai, Tokhi
Lodi > Dawlatzai Kundi Lodi Lohani (Marwat), Niazi (Jahangirkhel, Kharotakhel, Malukkhel, Tajakhel, Paikhel, Isakhel, Sultankhel), Sarwani, Shirani, (Harifal Miani), Sur
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