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Old April 9th, 2015, 11:09 PM   #1

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Why exactly did China withdraw to the McMahon Line after the 1962 Sino-Indian War?


Why exactly did China withdraw to the McMahon Line after the 1962 Sino-Indian War (as opposed to having China keep the formerly Chinese territory which was located south of the McMahon Line)? :

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Old April 10th, 2015, 12:15 AM   #2
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to control the level of the war
1. why not holding the position. the Indian army was practically driven out. if maintain in the position, the Indian must put more soldiers to engage battles to reverse the score, the China must put even more force too. the war would become a full scale one
2. why not even push forward. the western line was very close to the heart of India. pushing forward, the Indian people's nationalism would rise, then China would not only be a contemporary enemy but also a deadly foe. the war goal was not to set a permanent enemy

thus the logical solution is withdraw, turn the whole thing into the diplomatic solution.
unfortunately, the Indian nationlism had already been raised up, Nehru, as a forward policy leader himself, faced even more preasure from more aggressive politicians, left this problem for nearly half a century now.
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Old April 10th, 2015, 03:04 AM   #3

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Because that war wasn't about taking over territory. It was about teaching Nehru and the Indian Army a lesson. Nehru was pushing the envelope with the chinese, baiting them while maintaining a hypocritical "we're all friends" tone. He seemed to have figured that because he had obliged China on Tibet, they'd wink at his posturing. The Chinese weren't taking it, so eventually they pushed the army out, and Nehru took it really badly. For whatever reason he had deluded himself in believing that he could bait the Chinese and they wouldn't respond. He had actually been pushing the army to aggressively push against them without actually allowing them to be properly equipped for a confrontation!

So the Chinese hit back. 62 was basically a punitive war. And having thrashed the Indians, they withdrew. At the time, China wasn't as expansionist as it has since become (and most of that expansionism was never really focused on the Tibetan side, mostly in the South China sea).

Changing borders because of an act of warfare would have created far too many diplomatic wrinkles. China was and still hopes to settle that through negotiation, since then it has legitimacy. If you force a change through violence, that poisons all future dealings. Look at India and Pakistan. Any hope for a amicable relationship was destroyed when Pakistan infiltrated and flooded kashmir with illegal combatants. China had that example from the recent past.

Interestingly, few conflicts in South Asia have resulted in border changes. For instance, the borders haven't changed in the various Indo-Pak wars either (excepting ofcourse the first one in 47), and both sides would usually end up withdrawing in large part to Status Quo Ante Bellum positions after each conflict.
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Old April 10th, 2015, 07:32 PM   #4
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Cause they had no chance, no chance in hell.
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Old April 10th, 2015, 07:39 PM   #5

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Oda Horatio View Post
Cause they had no chance, no chance in hell.
For what?
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Old April 11th, 2015, 09:42 AM   #6
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For the simple reason that China could not hold its gains.

One thing that should be noted is that in 1962 war, China did not held any land that was not in its possession before the start of war. Askai Chin was already in China's control even before war.

Biggest reason for this was terrain. The terrain in mountainous on Indian side in Arunanchal Pradesh while being Plateau on Tibetan side, with highest range of Himalayan cordilleras facing China; and mountainous on both side in Ladakh and Askai Chin.

China waged war on India in october and gained ground in Arunanchal, but failed to get any traction in Ladakh. China, has to withdraw as it was not in a position to stay in Arunanchal after all mountain pass closes down in winter (which was just one and a half month away). It could have stayed, if PLA has consolidated itself in Tibet , but with only four years in an inhospitable barred plateau in which everything from food ration to ammunition has to hauled from mainland, it was not in a position to sustain war. At this time Tibet was cut off from China and PLA's supply lines would have been thousand of kilometer with only supply possible would be on foot.



So now imagine that you are a PLA's general or a CCP officeholder. You have two choices.

1. Keep your army in Arunanchal where they would be cut off in winter and would face an Indian onslaught which would be well supplied from Plains and have complete Air-superiority over your forces (India has Air-superiority over China along with capability to bomb beijing using B-24 Liberators. Indian Airforce was not used as Nehru did not wanted to risk bombing of Kolkata in retaliation, a decision which is criticized by retd. Air Marshals even today) , and risk losing war.


2. Withdraw army from Arunanchal and declare political victory over India.


PLA and CCP chose less riskier second option. It has added benefit of neutralizing India rather that turning it into a sworn enemy.


It should also be kept in mind that PLA overwhelmed Indian Army in Arunanchal/NEFA because of two reasons. One, It outnumbered IA by 8:1. Second, The general assigned to Arunanchal got his job due to being a political yes man and he showed extraordinary cowardice in battle ,when he left for Delhi at the start of war and ordered troops to withdraw from prepared positions in panic.

Both of these factors would not have been in China's favor in a winter offensive. Indian army ,having fully mobilized, would have had numerical superiority over cut-off PLA's army. Indian Army would have been well supplied by US made equipments due to cold war dynamics. And most important , after being humiliated by China and shamed by legislators in Indian Parliament, Nehru-Menon duo has replaced political appointes with proper general like Sam Manikchand (He was COAS during Indo-Pak war of 1971 and would become one of only two Field Marshals that India ever had). Leadership played a very important role in tis war as China was not able to gain much in Tibetan theater due to better Leadership shown by Indian generals in that theater.

Last edited by Abhishek; April 11th, 2015 at 10:00 AM.
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Old April 20th, 2015, 04:43 PM   #7
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McMahon Line?


I think the more important question is "Why is it that there is such thing as

"McMahon Line" in the border area of India and China?
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Old April 20th, 2015, 05:14 PM   #8

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Canada Ainu View Post
I think the more important question is "Why is it that there is such thing as [/B]
"McMahon Line" in the border area of India and China?
Because there was a treaty signed in the early 20th century which established this line and because a British civil servant named Olaf Caroe reminded the British government of the existence of this line in the 1930s.
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Old April 20th, 2015, 05:29 PM   #9
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Because there was a treaty signed in the early 20th century which established this line and because a British civil servant named Olaf Caroe reminded the British government of the existence of this line in the 1930s.
Yes, the British did it! Is it acceptable? What did UK have anything to do with India? It was none of their business, the filthy occupation and armed robbery took place for 500 years. British East India Company!
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Old April 20th, 2015, 06:38 PM   #10
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I think the British East India company actually started to exercise political power in India in the 18th century. That means that the British were in some sort of power in India for about 250 years (less).
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