First we need clarify a few things here. To make a sense of what we are talking about we need to be precise about this. *Greeks invaded India - Greeks took control over present day North West Pakistan.
*Arabs invaded Europe - Arabs took control over present day Spain.
These two are facts. What was Arab effect on Europe. Well it depends. Are we talking about Estonia? Norway? Moldavia? Austria? There was absolutely no effect of Arab invasion of Europe in any of these countries for the simple fact that the Arab's never went to those parts of Europe.
They only went to one corner of Europe - Spain. If there were any secondary influences into rest of Europe they were diffuse. However within Spain Arab impact was significant
as testified by the various Moorish architecture like Al Hambra in Granada. However your not going to find any Al Hambra's in Riga, Latvia.
Arabic Kufic decotative writing in Spain.
Let us look at the actual area that bore the impact of Greek influence. As mentioned by the earlier example of Arab/Europe which in fact was Arab/Spain in this case to understand this it would not be Greek/India but Greek/North West Pakistan.
The area that the Greeks impacted on was in what is now north west of Pakistan. We need to home onto the actual region as opposed using blunt descriptor like India which is a huge sub continent equivalent to Europe. Please look at the map below at the exact area impacted.
First the location in red of the Greek Gandhara Kingdoms within South Asia. Taxila was the major centre of Greek Backtrian Kingdom. As can be seen the area marked in red line falls with north west Pakistan and goes over into eastern Afghanistan. Essentially from Pakistan's capital Islamabad to Afghan capital Kabul.
Then a zoomed up map of North West Pakistan with Taxila which is just on the outskirt of Islamabad, Pakistan's capital. Please note Abbotabad about 10 miles north of Taxila. This district on north west side of Islamabad is called Hazara.
This is the extreme close up of the Islamabad-Taxila-Rawalpindi Capital Metropolitan Area with Hazara district just on the north west of the capital area.
Now instead of looking at this subject at almost continent level you have zoomed to the exact area within north west Pakistan where Greek influence impacted. Thus it's influence might have been diffuse as regards the continent but within this area and in particular Islamabad, Taxila and Hazara district the effect should have been significant. This is where the Greek Bactrians lived and died.
Most of the Greek coins and other Greek inspired artifects have been found in Taxila as marked on the map adjacent to Islamabad capital area..
Greek Coins, Taxila, Pakistan.
Jandial Temple, Taxila, Pakistan resembling Greek temples.
Again Taxila, Pakistan with clear Backtrian Greek influence.
Demetrius Bactrian Greek King
For those interested there is Taxila Museum, Pakistan which holds most of the Greek artifacts found in Taxila.
[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxila_Museum"]Taxila Museum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame] https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=ta...tm%3B540%3B360
As regards the people found there we can't use Islamabad the capital as referance because it has recieved people from everywhere. However just above Taxila the Abottabad valley about 7 miles north of Taxila remains a rural area where the Hazara people who speak Hindkho reside much as they did over centuries. We can't into into genetics however the mode of the population is far more meditearanean then compared to rest of South Asia. Further west the Pashtun belt starts which again resembles populations more to the west. You can draw your own conclusions.
However you must not look at the Greek influences by searching all of South Asia. Like I said we know Arabs invaded Europe but you don't search in Estonia for any influences. You look at the actual location where they invaded, that is Spain.
In this case you need to be looking at north west Pakistan. As you can see there are coins, other artifacts and architecture left with clear Greek imprint. I think Hellenic influence is undeniable here. These make history alive. If you walk in the ruins of Taxila the past almost comes alive. You are literally walking on the footsteps of Alexander as we know he came to Taxila.
[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhara"]Gandhara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]
[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seated_Buddha_from_Gandhara"]Seated Buddha from Gandhara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]
A group of men dancing to the local Attan, Abbotabad about 7 miles north of Taxila in Hazara District, Abottabad, can be seen on the map North of Taxila, Pakistan. We can't post genetic information here however this area has higher linkage with western populations then most of South Asia.
The area to the West all the way to Afghanistan is dominated by mix of Hazara or Pashtuns both populations have strong western bearing about them and are know across South Asia as such.
If in 2,000 years historians wanted to look at the effects of Normandy landings on D-Day you would hardly search around on the Mediteranean beach in Greece even if both Normandy and Greece are in Europe.
Moral of the story. If you want to see Alexander's or Bactrian Greek influence and impact or lack thereof in South Asia your going to have to lock onto Pakistan because that is the area that was impacted. Your not going to find it in India even if books say India. Geographic names change over the millenia.
Good book to read on the subject with details and maps of this area including collection of coins. The Greeks in Ancient Pakistan
by RAFI SAMAD