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The Rise of Modern Science in the West: 400 Years from Petrarch to Joseph Black

Posted November 9th, 2016 at 08:22 PM by civfanatic
Updated November 9th, 2016 at 08:33 PM by civfanatic

In his 1796 "Lectures on Chemistry," the British chemist-professor Joseph Black stated: "It is the desire of knowledge, of improvement, of obtaining new facts in any Subject which they take into consideration which distinguishes a Newton or a Boerhaave from the rest of their contemporaries. They deservedly have acquired the appellation of Philosophers... In short, I call every man a Philosopher who invents anything new or improves any business in which he is employed - Even the Farmer...
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Secularization, Patriot Ideology, and The Freeman's Remonstrance of 1777: An Analysis

Posted September 23rd, 2016 at 04:35 PM by civfanatic
Updated October 10th, 2016 at 11:33 PM by civfanatic

The United States was one of the first countries in human history to feature a constitutional separation of religion and politics. This formal separation, which is enshrined in the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, was being advocated by certain Patriots since the very beginning of the American War of Independence. One particular pamphlet that advocates this position is entitled The Freeman’s Remonstrance against an Ecclesiastical Establishment, and was published by an anonymous “Freeman...
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18th Century America through Native Eyes: Analysis of Hendrick Aupaumut's Narrative

Posted September 2nd, 2016 at 06:20 PM by civfanatic

When discussing the history of Native Americans in 18th America, we are reliant to a very heavy degree on sources written by white Americans. Unfortunately, this reliance on external sources means that much of our understanding of native history and culture is marred by the biases of Euro-American observers. This reality makes the surviving written sources that were written by Indians themselves especially valuable, as they provide a correcting lens through which we can see both sides of the historical...
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Political Evolution in the Kingdom of Benin and the Account of David van Nyendael

Posted March 28th, 2016 at 01:07 AM by civfanatic
Updated October 10th, 2016 at 11:33 PM by civfanatic

When David van Nyendael, a merchant of the Dutch West India Company, visited the Kingdom of Benin in 1701, he found a state that was past its prime. The present condition of Agatton (also spelled Ughoton), the main trading village of Benin, was quite miserable due to the deleterious effects of warfare, and was much more prosperous in the past. The capital of Benin itself, according to Nyendael, was “little more than a village”, due to a civil war which resulted in three-quarters of its inhabitants...
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Monarch and Bureaucrat in Old Kingdom Egypt: Comparing the Lives of Weni and Harkhuf

Posted February 27th, 2016 at 06:30 PM by civfanatic
Updated October 10th, 2016 at 11:34 PM by civfanatic

The Old Kingdom of Egypt, spanning some eight dynasties and five centuries (c.2686-2160 BCE), was one of the earliest centralized states in human history. Operating this powerful state was a vast bureaucracy, collecting resources for the pharaoh and waging wars on his behalf. In the surviving autobiographies of late Old Kingdom bureaucrats, the relationship between the individual official and the pharaoh was portrayed as one of loyal servant and powerful master, but the reality may have been more...
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