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  1. Old Comment

    Sources on the Ottoman and Safavid Wars

    Very good blog. Nice to read. There is one more interesting book concerning Ottoman and Safavid Wars: Kenneth Chase
    Firearms: A Global History to 1700. It describes unique features of wars between these countries.
    Posted May 16th, 2017 at 06:25 AM by samshit samshit is offline
  2. Old Comment
    deaf tuner's Avatar

    The Voice


    I suppose the candidates I rehearsing with the band before the blinds. I sometimes dream that I could be present, to see how the candidate works with the band, how the band adapts itself, the orchestration, the style … because those background bands are absolutely fantastic. The level they are accompanying absolutely everything, it's … well, no way to say how professional they are.

    I crossed the Bosphorus, for listening the "Skyfall".

    And I think I start to like more the Greek metallic Skyfall than the original …

    Posted May 10th, 2017 at 12:10 PM by deaf tuner deaf tuner is offline
    Updated May 10th, 2017 at 12:15 PM by deaf tuner
  3. Old Comment
    AlpinLuke's Avatar

    The Siege of Malta

    It begins ...

    The first Turkish ships were sighted by the lookouts of S. Elmo and S. Angel on May 18, 1565, a Friday. The fleet veered south-east and began to land troops in the deep bay of Marsascirocco. At this point contrasts rose immediately between Mustafa and Piali. The first one wanted to occupy the north of the island, to take the weak Mdina cutting communications with Sicily, then he would have besieged Birgu and Senglea. S. Elmo was possible to be safely ignored. It was an intelligent and rational plan but Piali didn't agree; he argued that the first duty was to ensure a good anchorage for the fleet and the only safe haven was Marsamxett watched only by the small fort. The engineers had assured the Turks they would have been able to conquer the stronghold in a few days. At the end of the discussions Mustafa accepted the point of view of Piali, considering the close relationship of the family of the Admiral with the Sultan. It was therefore decided to attack first S. Elmo.

    The army, therefore, went up north, leaving on its left an undisturbed Mdina, and put his camp in Marsa where the water met the land of the Grand Harbour. After having occupied the highest points of the Sciberras and having built the parapets, the Turkish sappers and artillerymen immediately began to put the guns in battery. On the morning of May 24th Mustafa ordered to open fire on S. Elmo. The bombardment went on for six days while the Musketeers from advanced trenches killed anyone exposing on the walls of the fort. On May 29th, however, the defenders carried out a sortie, which came as a surprise for advanced Turkish lines and that allowed the besieged knights to conquer the height parts of the Sciberras. But here, waiting for them, there were the Janissaries. With their high white caps [Bork] adorned with feathers of the heron , the "favorite sons of the Sultan" advanced Orta [regiment] after orta and, in a 'fierce struggle”, forced the men of St. Elmo to return to the fort. The intense bombardment went on for days, but every night La Valette sent reinforcements and ammunitions from Birgu and retired wounded and dying in the hospital to recover them in the village.

    Saturday, June 2nd Dragut arrived with his men. Dragut Rais, or Torghoud in turkish, was eighty years old and was the most famous and respected Muslim corsair. Among his achievements there had been an attack to Naples with the looting of Castellammare and the conquest of Reggio Calabria, where he had carried off into slavery the entire population. Dragut of Tripoli was carrying 1,500 pikemen and 15 ships with siege guns and ammunitions. The old pirate was quickly aware of the strategic error made by the Turkish Army, but unable to do anything, he simply organized new batteries and he fixed the existing ones more efficiently.
    Posted May 5th, 2017 at 06:38 AM by AlpinLuke AlpinLuke is offline
  4. Old Comment
    AlpinLuke's Avatar

    The Siege of Malta

    Part II the Knights

    The Order of Malta had gathered on the Isles the following forces:

    541 Knights of the Order as follows:
    Language of Provence: 61 15 Knights and Sergeants;
    Language of Auvergne: 25 Knights and 14 Sergeants;
    Language in France: 57 24 Knights and Sergeants;
    Language of Italy: 164 5 Knights and Sergeants;
    Language of England: 1 Knight;
    Language of Germany: 13 Knights and 1 Sergeant;
    Language of Castile: 68 Knights and 6 Sergeants;
    Language of Aragon: 85 Knights and 1 Sergeant.

    Balbi in his diary makes also a list of the other forces available [not Knights]

    400 Spaniards under the command of Andres de Miranda and Juan de la Cerda, sent by the Viceroy of Sicily;
    200 Italians under the command of Hasdrubal de 'Medici;
    400 Italians under the command of Provencal Massuez Pierre de Vercoyran, said: "Colonel Mas" which was also sent by the Viceroy of Sicily;
    200 Italians under La Motte;
    100 soldiers of the garrison of St. Elmo;
    500 soldiers of the galleys;
    100 attendants of the Grand Master of the Knights;
    200 Greeks and Sicilians resident in Malta;
    500 slaves on galleys and paddlers in the contract (all volunteers);
    3,000 Maltese from all over the island.

    La Valette had been informed of the intentions of the Turks since the fall of 1564 and from that moment he began to storm Europe with requests for help and to take all measures necessary to sustain a long siege. Among the others he had arranged to realize a bridge of boats that connected Birgu Senglea through the arm of the sea [today Dockyard Creek].

    In command of Fort St. Elmo La Valette placed Luigi Broglia, from Piedmont, a Knight over seventy assisted by Giangiacomo Parpalla and as deputy commander the Spanish knight Juan de Guaras. He also reinforced the garrison with 200 foot soldiers under Juan de La Cerda and on several occasions during the siege, with the Italians of Colonel Mas, the knight was guarded by the brothers led by Geronimo Festival.

    As for Mdina La Valette sent there almost all the cavalry of the Order, knowing how important it was to maintain communications with the north island, with Gozo and, through it, with Sicily. The command of the fortress was given to Pedro Mezquita, a Portuguese. S. Michele, as mentioned, the place was garrisoned by the Knights of Italy, including Asdrubal de 'Medici and Anthony Hammer, assisted by the Maltese troops.

    Governor of St. Angelo was Galceran Ros, a Catalan knight, while Juan de Acua was in command of a reserve consisting of 50 men. Each language was given a part of the walls of Birgu and Senglea. The most sought after, as we shall see, will be the places of Castile, Provence, Aragon and Auvergne.

    The strategic plan was simple: to resist until the arrival of renforcements from the continent or to hope that the Turks, because of the inhospitality of the island in the cold season and the approach of autumn and winter season for navigation, decide to retire. If the Knights had lost Malta there would have been no more place to go. The surrender was not an option.
    Posted May 4th, 2017 at 05:51 AM by AlpinLuke AlpinLuke is offline
  5. Old Comment
    AlpinLuke's Avatar

    Thought about the Exodus

    Jews in Egypt

    Discussing the matter of the Jewish Exodus in the forum, something has come to my mind:

    evidences that Jews settled in KmT are present, but they aren't so ancient: on the isle of Elephantine there was a Jewish Temple [a Temple, note this], from where they wrote letters to other Jewish communities. It was V century BCE.

    And in V century BCE the Jewish identity, with the tradition, was already in a certain measure well-defined [as Ive mentioned in other occasions, in the letters from Elephantine there are aspects of the tradition, like the commemoration of the Passover].

    [A link to the Passover Letter: Passover Letter]

    Regarding when that temple had built, and when the Jews settled on that isle, there are different opinions. It seems it happened around the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem [596 - 587BCE].

    An interesting reading about that community is
    The Jewish Temple at Elephantine
    Author(s): Stephen G. Rosenberg

    as presented on
    Near Eastern Archaeology,
    Vol. 67, No. 1 (Mar., 2004), pp. 4-13

    [PDF available: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/ah505/art...lephantine.pdf]

    Actually the tradition could start while the Jews are leaving KmT [Moses, according to the tradition, coded the tradition itself]. Anyway, reading the Bible, the impression is that this tradition existed [in other words, Moses and Aaron brought Israel back to the tradition and to the God of Abraham].

    So, according to the tradition, we should look for something Jewish in KmT in that far past. It's anyway clear that the tradition could not be accurate.
    Posted May 4th, 2017 at 05:23 AM by AlpinLuke AlpinLuke is offline
  6. Old Comment
    Lord Oda Nobunaga's Avatar

    Chinese Society in the Late Imperial Period: the Great Qing

    Originally Posted by Ajax_Minoan View Comment
    Cool man, I liked the article.
    This blog answered a lot of my questions about how people write articles on Historum. I love the multiple images.

    I wish I new more on Chinese history. It's not my strongest area, so it was hard to put everything into a broader context.
    Thanks, though I'm not finished yet.
    I still have not updated it which would add how Kangxi won over the populace as well as the events surrounding his death and succession. Though I probably have limited space to do so.
    Posted April 30th, 2017 at 10:40 PM by Lord Oda Nobunaga Lord Oda Nobunaga is offline
  7. Old Comment
    AlpinLuke's Avatar


    Update: the hypothesis that she didn't die or disappear.

    As I had occasion to discuss in a long thread[http://historum.com/ancient-history/...hive-001k.html], some objects found by Carter in Tut's tomb seem to suggest that the Queen didn't disappear, but that she became a Pharaoh [female and then male].

    The box object of the discussion presents an inscription showing Akhenaten, Meritaten and in the middle the names of an unknown monarch: Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten.

    Now, the particularity is that both prenomen and nomen of this Queen [it's a female personage] are composed with "mary" [beloved of, loved by] and two names. These two names are prenomen and nomen of Akhenaten.

    This pictures makes the matter a bit more clear:
    Click the image to open in full size.

    Note: Neferkheperre Waenre is the throne name of Akhenaten.

    Explanation: to recognize the names of a Pharaoh we have to pay attention to the captions before of the cartouches.

    Click the image to open in full size.

    The interesting aspect is that the real name of Nefertiti was

    Neferneferuaten Nefertiti.

    Now, who was a female personage in the Royal Court beloved of Akhenaten?

    The most obvious answer [since an other Neferneferuaten is not known] is ... Nefertiti.

    An other clue that there was a female monarch is the presence, in Tut's burial site, of statuettes depicting kings looking like Queens ...
    Click the image to open in full size.
    Posted April 26th, 2017 at 12:48 AM by AlpinLuke AlpinLuke is offline
  8. Old Comment
    Ajax_Minoan's Avatar

    Primary Source: Ammianus Marcellinus on the Huns

    This was helpful to me for something I am researching. I'm going to have to read the account of this historian on the Huns myself. I want to read Jordanes Origins and Deeds of the Goths as well.
    Posted April 23rd, 2017 at 03:24 PM by Ajax_Minoan Ajax_Minoan is offline
  9. Old Comment
    Ajax_Minoan's Avatar

    Chinese Society in the Late Imperial Period: the Great Qing

    Cool man, I liked the article.
    This blog answered a lot of my questions about how people write articles on Historum. I love the multiple images.

    I wish I new more on Chinese history. It's not my strongest area, so it was hard to put everything into a broader context.
    Posted April 23rd, 2017 at 01:01 AM by Ajax_Minoan Ajax_Minoan is offline
  10. Old Comment
    deaf tuner's Avatar

    The Voice

    O Ses Trkiye

    OK, You're going to say I'm going political ... well, I am, 'cause music can get political.

    It can pass messages and passions like nothing else can do. I think it was some Greek guy wanting to keep musicians out of his ideal polis. Was it Plato? Never mind. But he knew something.

    Maybe Tuğe Gendigelen isn't the best voice that the Voice of Turkey had seen passing by, but she really has character. So much that she is putting on fire everything in two beats only. And the look ...

    Watching and listening her, somewhere in the back of my head, something started buzzing :

    Man, this is Turkey.

    How will deal Erdogan, with all his "evet" with this Turkey? She had 100% "evet" ...

    How will deal Tuğe Gendigelen with Erdogan's Turkish dream?

    . . .

    PS: have patience and watch till the end: it's on of the extremely rare occasions where there's a "bis", as the jury (those turning later) wanted to see the performance from the beginning too ... and the second variant it's even better than the first one...
    Posted April 21st, 2017 at 12:36 PM by deaf tuner deaf tuner is offline
  11. Old Comment
    Gile na Gile's Avatar

    Salkantay Trail to Macchu Picchu

    Simply stunning Star
    As hoped and expected Machu Picchu tops the lot; beyond words, just breath-taking. The site itself is enormous; we all got lost in our own explorations within the hour. Kind of day you wished would never end. After devouring a whole shelf of Incan studies before we set off this was always going to be a Nirvana moment. To which end, can't speak highly enough of our trek guide Edgar; native Quechua speaker, fluent in English - so passionate about his culture; an absolute goldmine of observations. Had him plagued the whole week with a barrage of questions.

    But the highlight? - Quaffing a few cold beers watching the Andean sunset after a sweaty 10 hour hike down from the Salkantay peak - now that was a 'real' heaven.
    Posted April 19th, 2017 at 04:03 PM by Gile na Gile Gile na Gile is offline
  12. Old Comment
    Star's Avatar

    Salkantay Trail to Macchu Picchu

    This is amazing, Gile! I'm so glad you shared these pictures. You guys reached some pretty awesome elevation, kudos to you. What a trek. What was your favorite part of the trip? Or is that an impossible question? If the photo views of Macchu Picchu are absolutely mind-bogglingly beautiful, the experience of being there in person has to be within a hair's breadth of heaven itself.
    Posted April 19th, 2017 at 09:30 AM by Star Star is offline
  13. Old Comment
    Gile na Gile's Avatar

    Salkantay Trail to Macchu Picchu

    Cheers Von
    Incredible place. Sheer wizardry of the Inca to carve out a mountain top retreat like that. Ok, we did it the hard way hiking and camping (for which I'm still suffering!) but its pretty user-friendly insofar as a dodgy knee shouldn't prevent you getting up there. Coaches drop everybody to the site after which there's little climbing involved. I was in a complete heap as tendonitis flared up after a week's trekking but still managed to get around the Machu Picchu site - even Lowry could do it!!
    Posted April 18th, 2017 at 10:54 PM by Gile na Gile Gile na Gile is offline
  14. Old Comment
    Von Ranke's Avatar

    Salkantay Trail to Macchu Picchu

    Great pics Gile and thanks for sharing. I would love to go there, but the dodgy knees rule it out unfortunately. You look like you had a great time up in the summit of the Gods. Has anyone ever told you that you are the double of your fellow countryman Shane Lowrie?

    Posted April 17th, 2017 at 03:50 PM by Von Ranke Von Ranke is offline
  15. Old Comment
    deaf tuner's Avatar

    The Voice

    Still Loving You

    I don't know about You, but God, I danced on this song. And I suppose there are others that can't think at it sung by others than the Scorpions, with that so particular voice of Klaus Meine.

    But … one should never say never …

    Because, there's … Russia, for example. And there's that guy called Sharif Umhanov that thinks he can dare to sing that ballad of ballads …

    He was more than right: Gradtzki didn't needed the third bar to recognise a voice ...

    . . .
    Posted April 16th, 2017 at 09:00 AM by deaf tuner deaf tuner is offline
    Updated April 16th, 2017 at 09:08 AM by deaf tuner
  16. Old Comment
    deaf tuner's Avatar

    The Voice

    Redemption Song

    Well, it's true it's named "The voice". So it's supposed to have people with voice, with a good one, coming. But it's music, and a song it's more than just voice. There are lyrics, meant to say something together with the music.

    It's interpreting, transmitting. Feelings. Atmosphere.

    So, here is Mitchell Brunings interpreting, and how beautifully, the Redemption Song:

    . . .
    Posted April 16th, 2017 at 06:57 AM by deaf tuner deaf tuner is offline
    Updated April 16th, 2017 at 07:31 AM by deaf tuner
  17. Old Comment
    ayasachan's Avatar

    Spain and the Philippines

    @martin76, thank you.
    Posted April 14th, 2017 at 04:18 AM by ayasachan ayasachan is offline
  18. Old Comment

    Spain and the Philippines

    Very nice painting and very nice post.
    Posted April 12th, 2017 at 02:27 AM by martin76 martin76 is offline
  19. Old Comment

    Historical fiction

    Legions march in Ben-Hur 2016 movie

    I know that legions often sang as they march and that scene was impressive in the movie; especially since they actually looked like battle-hardened legionaries. My question: Does anyone know what they are singing? I would like the Latin and the translation. I can make out a few words I think. Can any one help me in this?
    Posted March 31st, 2017 at 06:55 PM by Jaylene Jaylene is offline
  20. Old Comment
    deaf tuner's Avatar

    Broken mirror

    Ayham al-Ahmad Ahmad

    “Six months after the partial blockade of Yarmouk, the camp became airtight. Flour and bread were banned, everything was banned from coming into the camp. We used to say that they would have even stopped airflow had they found a way to do it. At that time, I started to feel the plight I inflicted upon my kids. Why did I stay? What would I do?”

    He tried to take his piano with him. But

    “there was a member of Islamic State at the checkpoint who stopped me and asked: ‘Don’t you know that the musical instruments are haram [forbidden]’?” Then they burnt my piano ... ”

    Syrian musicians among growing number of refugees in Europe
    El Pianista de Yarmouk
    Posted March 27th, 2017 at 11:58 AM by deaf tuner deaf tuner is offline
    Updated March 28th, 2017 at 11:24 AM by deaf tuner
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