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The Military Career of Cao Cao

Posted May 20th, 2018 at 09:31 PM by Lord Oda Nobunaga
Updated May 26th, 2018 at 08:55 PM by Lord Oda Nobunaga

Cao Cao 155 - 220
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*note: "x" marks a defeat

-175 Cao Cao completed the district examinations, he became "Filially Pious and Incorrupt"
-176 District Captain of North Luoyang
-177-178 Magistrate of Dunqiu county
-180 Court Counselor

Yellow Turban Revolt in Yu Province (Huangfu Song & Zhu Jun)
-Battle of Changse (184 fifth month) (against Bo Cai)
-Battle of Xihua (184 sixth month) (against Bo Cai)

Yellow Turban Revolt in Ji & You Provinces (Huangfu Song)
-Battle of Quyang (184 eighth month) (against Zhang Liang)
Yellow Turban Revolt in Qing Province
-Pacification of Jinan 185-187 (is made Chancellor if Jinan)

Campaign against Dong Zhuo (Yuan Shao)
-x Battle of Xingyang (190 second month) (against Xu Rong)
-Longkang Revolt 190

Suppression of the Heishan Bandits and Southern Xiongnu in the Black Mountains (Cao Cao)
-Battle of Puyang (191 seventh month) (against Bai Rao)
-Siege of Dongwuyang (192 spring) (Yu Du besieges fort while Cao Cao is in Dunqiu)
-Siege of Yu Du's mountain base (192 second month/spring) (Yu Du stops his siege to relieve his base)
-Battle of Neihuang (192 spring) (against Sui Gu and Yufuluo of the Xiongnu)

Yellow Turban Remnants in Qing Province (Cao Cao)
-Battle of Shouzhang (192 autumn)
-Battle of Jibei (192 autumn/winter)

Yuan Shu and Gongsun Zan war (Yuan Shao & Cao Cao)
-Battle of Gaotang (193 winter) (against Liu Bei)
-Battle of Pingyuan (193 winter) (against Chan Jing)
-Battle of Fugan (193 winter) (against Tao Qian)
-Battle of Kuangting (193 spring) (against Liu Xiang, Yuan Shu & Yufuluo)
-Siege of Fengqiu (193 spring) (Yuan Shu & Yufuluo)
-Siege of Xiangyi (193 spring) (Yuan Shu)
-Battle of Ningling (193 spring) (Yuan Shu)
-Battle of Jiujang (193 summer) (Yuan Shu)

Tao Qian War in Xu Province (Cao Cao)
-2nd Battle of Hua (193 autumn) (Jue Xuan & Tao Qian)
-2nd Battle of Fei (193 autumn) (Jue Xuan & Tao Qian)
-2nd Battle of Rencheng (193 autumn) (Jue Xuan & Tao Qian)
-Siege of Pengcheng (193 autumn) (Tao Qian)
-x Siege of Tancheng (193 autumn) (Tao Qian)
-Siege of Qiulu (193 winter)
-Siege of Suiling (193 winter)
-Siege of Xiaqiu (193 winter)
-Siege of Langye (194 spring)
-Siege of Donghai (194 spring)
-Battle of Tancheng (194 spring) (Liu Bei & Cao Bao)
-Siege of Xiangfen (194 spring) (Liu Bei & Cao Bao)

Lu Bu Invasion of Yan Province (Cao Cao, Xun Yu & Cheng Yu)
-Siege of Juancheng (194 spring) (Xun Yu & Cheng Yu vs Lu Bu) (Fan and Donga also under siege)
-Siege of Puyang (194 spring/summer/autumn) (Lu Bu)
-Battle of Chengshi (194 ninth month) (Lu Bu vs Li Jin)
-Siege of Juye (195 summer) (Xue Lan, Li Feng & Lu Bu)
-Battle of Juye (195 summer) (Lu Bu & Cheng Gong)
-2nd Siege of Dingtao (195 summer) (Lu Bu)
-Siege of Yongqiu (195 eighth month autumn - twelfth month winter) (Zhang Chao)

Campaigns against Yuan Shu & Seizure of Emperor Xian (Cao Cao)
-Siege of Wuping (196 first month/spring) (Yuan Si)
-Battle of the Luoyang Passes (196 spring) (Dong Cheng & Chang Nu vs Cao Hong; stalemate, Cao Hong cannot advance)
-Battle of Yingchuan (196 second month) (He Yi, Liu Bi, Huang Shao, He Man)
-Battle of Luoyang (196 seventh month/autumn) (Han Xian; Cao Cao takes Emperor Xian)
-Siege of Liang (196 tenth month/winter) (Yang Feng)

Yuan Shu, Lu Bu, Liu Biao, Zhang Xiu War (Cao Cao)
-Siege of Xiapi (196 winter/tenth month?) (Lu Bu takes Xiapi; Liu Bei flees to Cao Cao)
-x Battle of Wancheng (197 first month/ spring) (against Zhang Xiu & Jia Xu)
-Battle of Wuyin (197 first month spring) (against Zhang Xiu & Jia Xu)
-Battle of Huai River (197) (Yuan Shu attacks Lu Bu but is defeated and he retreats)
-Battle of Chen (197 ninth month autumn) (Yuan Shu, Qiao Rui, Li Feng, Liang Gang & Yue Jiu)
-x Zhangling/Nanyang revolt (197 ninth month/autumn? tenth month/winter?) (Cao Hong fails to defeat Zhang Xiu)
-Battle of Huyang (197 eleventh month winter) (Liu Biao sent Deng Ji to invade; upon capturing Deng Ji, Huyang surrendered and was recaptured by Cao Cao)
-Battle of Wuyin (197 eleventh month winter) (after recapturing Huyang Cao Cao retook Wuyin)
-Siege of Rang (198 third month to fifth month) (Zhang Xiu is besieged, Liu Biao sends reinforcements. Cao Cao goes to attack the relief army but is pursued by Zhang Xiu to Anzhong where Liu Biao sent his army)
-Battle of Anzhong (198 fifth month) (Zhang Xiu & Liu Biao)(Zhang Xiu surrenders to Cao Cao in 199 winter eleventh month)
-x Battle of Xiaopei (198 seventh month? eigth month?) (Liu Bei and Xiahou Dun are defeated by Lu Bu's general Gao Shun)
-Siege of Pengcheng (198 ninth month to tenth month winter) (Hou Xie)
-Siege of Xiapi (198 tenth month) (Lu Bu, Chen Gong & Cheng Lian are beaten & captured)
-Battle of Taishan (198 tenth month) (Zang Ba, Sun Guan, Wu Dun, Yin li & Chang Xi)
-Battle of Quancheng (199 fourth month summer) (Cao Ren & Shi Huan beat and kill Sui Gu)
-Siege of Shequan (199 fourth month summer) (Xue Hong, Miu Shang & Wei Zhong surrender to Cao Cao)

Yuan Shao & Liu Bei War, Campaign in the North East (Cao Cao)
-Qing Province (199 eighth month autumn)(Cao Cao orders Zang Ba to besiege Qi, Beihai & Dongan)
-Xiapi (199 twelfth month) (Cao Cao sends Liu Bei & Zhu Ling to attack Yuan Shu who was on the march; upon encountering them near Xiapi Yuan Shu dies of illness)
-x Xiapi (199) (Liu Bei rebels and kills Inspector Ju Zhou thus seizing Xu Province)
-x Xiapi/Pei (199) (Cao Cao sent Liu Dai & Wang Zhong to defeat Liu Bei but failed)
-Battle of Dushi Ford (200 first month) (Yuan Shao, He Mao & Wang Mo attack Yu Jin &Yue Jin in an attempt to bypass the Yellow RIver and outflank Cao Cao in an attack upon Xuchang)
-Xiapi (200 first month spring) (Cao Cao defeats Liu Bei in Xu; Liu Bei flees to Yuan Shao)
-Siege of Xiapi (200 first month) (Guan Yu surrenders to Cao Cao)
-Siege of Chang Xi's army (200 first month) (Chang Xi revolted in Xu for Liu Bei but was reduced by siege by Cao Cao; Cao Cao turned north to face Yuan Shao)
-Battle of Baima (200 second month) (Cao Cao relieved Liu Yan from siege but feigned an attack on Yanjin; Yuan Shao is defeated, Yan Liang is killed, Cao Cao goes to relieve Yanjin)
-Battle of Yan Ford (200 second month) (Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shao & Liu Bei, Wen Chou dies and eventually retreats his army to Guandu, Yuan Shao makes a huge camp at Yangwu)
-Battle of Guandu (200 eigth month/autumn to tenth month/winter) (Yuan Shao besieges Guandu, Cao Cao sortees to raid Yuan's supply depots at Gushi & Wuchao, then outflanks Yuan & routs him)
-Battle of Yinjiang (200 ninth month) (Liu Pi rebels near Xuchang and is reinforced by Liu Bei to attack Xuchang; Cao Cao orders Cao Ren to sortee and he routs them)
-Battle of Cangting (201 fourth month/summer) (Cao Cao crosses the Yellow River and defeats Yuan Shao's garrison of Cangting; Cao Cao retreated and Yuan Shao reclaimed the area)
-Battle of Runan (201) (Gong Dou & his bandits rebelled with help from Liu Bei, Cao Cao sent Cai Yang to supress them but was defeated. Cao Cao came south; Liu Bei & Gong Dou scattered)
-Seizure of Suiyang dyke (202 first month) (at Qiao Cao Cao ordered the creation of agrocolonies for his army, he then went to Junyi & secured the dyke at Suiyang & sacrificed an ox to Qiao Xuan)
-x Battle of Bowang (202) (Cao Cao sends Xiahou Dun, Li Dian & Yu Jin to give chase to Liu Bei, Liu Bei ambushes them and continues his retreat)
-Battle of Liyang (202 ninth month autumn to 203 fourth month summer) (Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shang & Yuan Tan at Liyang so they retreat to Ye, Cao Cao tries to give chase but is overstretched and attacked by them, he retreats towards Yinan)
-Battle of Yinan (203 fourth month to fifth month summer) Cao Cao storms Yinan and seizes the granaries in Wei commandery; Cao Cao abandons Yinan, places Jia Xin at Liyang and retreats across the Yellow river. While Cao Cao was gone the Yuans turned on each other)
-x Siege of Yi (203 fifth month)(Yuan Tan turned on Yuan Shang and besieged Ye but was defeated, he retreated to Nanpi & Yuan Shang pursued)
-x Battle of Nanpi (203 fifth month) (Yuan Shang attacks Yuan Tan and Tan is driven off to Pingyuan)
-Siege of Pingyuan (203 sixth month to tenth month)(Yuan Tan is besieged by Yuan Shang; he submits to Cao Cao and Cao Cao arrives with relief, Yuan Shang retreats to guard Ye)
-Battle of Xiping (203 eigth month) (Cao Cao launches an expedition against Liu Biao; Yuan Tan sent a messenger offering surrender so Cao Cao accepts. Cao Cao marched north and arrived at Liyang in the tenth month)
-Siege of Ye (204 second month spring to eigth month) (Shen Pei & Shen Rong are besieged by Cao Cao and Cao Hong, Cao Cao beats Yin Kai & Ju Gu while Yuan Shang is plundering Ganling, Anping, Bohai & Hejian; Yuan Shang then tries to relieve Ye but is defeated by Cao Cao outside the town, some months after Cao Cao beats him in the hills Shen Rong opened the gate & the Wei army defeated Shen Pei, Ye surrenders)
-Battle of Maocheng (204 fourth month summer) (Cao Cao leaves Cao Hong to besiege Ye while he defeats Yin Kai who guards the supply of Yuan Shang)
-Battle of Handan (204 fourth month summer) (Cao Cao defeats Ju Gu; Yiyang & She counties surrender, Cao Cao returns to the siege of Ye)
-Battle of the Qi Hills (204 eigth month) (Yuan Shang flees from his failed relief of Ye to the hills, Cao Cao pursues and defeats him; Ma Yan & Zhang Yi surrender to Cao Cao while Yuan Shang flees to Zhongshan)
-Battle of Zhongshan (204 ninth month)(Cao Cao sent Yuan Tan to attack the routed Yuan Shang; Yuan Shang was defeated and fled to Gu'an)
-Battle of Pingyuan (204 twelfth month winter)(Cao Cao broke his alliance with Yuan Tan; Yuan Tan captured Pingyuan then fled to Nanpi, Cao Cao captured Pingyuan and proceeded to Nanpi)
-Siege of Nanpi (205 first month spring) (Cao Cao & Cao Chun captured Nanpi, defeated & beheaded Yuan Tan, executed his family & pacified Ji province)
-Battle of Zhuo (205 eigth month)(Zhao Du & Huo Nu killed the inspector of You province & Grand Admin of Zhuo commandery then they led their Black mountain bandits and Wuhuan to besiege Guangping in the fourth month; Cao Cao marched to the relief and beheaded Zhao Du in battle then continued across the Yellow river)
-Siege of Guangping (205 fourth month to eigth month) (Zhao Du & Huo Nu besieged Xianyu Fu at Guangping; after beheading Zhao Du Cao Cao crossed the Yellow River to relieve Guangping & the bandits retreated)
-Battle of Shangdang (205 eigth month)(Gao Gan rebelled in Bing province while Cao Cao was fighting the Wuhuan. Cao Cao sent Yue Jin & Li Dian to beat him & they captured Shangdang but he retreated to Hu pass/Huguan and he stopped their advance)
-Battle of Huguan (206 first month/spring to third month)(Cao Cao reinforces Yue Jin & Li Dian and besieges the pass; Gao Gan tries to get help from the Xiongnu but they refused, after leaving space for Gao to retreat, much of the garison deserted through the lines, Gao ran to Jing Province but Chief Commandant of Shangluo called Wang Yan caught and executed him)
-Battle of Chunyu (206 eigth month autumn)(Cao Cao, Yue Jin & Li Dian fought the pirate Guan Cheng in the East, he fled to an island in the sea)
-Battle of White Wolf Mountain (207 eigth month autumn)(Cao Cao maneuvred through the mountains and flooded plains until he found Tadun, Louban, Nengchendizhi, Yuan Shang & Yuan Xi below the mountain passes. Cao Cao routed their poor formation in a surpise assault and beheaded Tadun. The Wuhuan fled to Liaodong so Cao Cao bribed Gongsun Kang the Grand Admin of Liaodong to capture & execute Yuan Shang)

Conquest of Jing Province, Defeat at Red Cliffs, Liu Bei & Sun Quan Attack (Cao Cao & Cao Ren)
-Surrender of Xinye (208 ninth month) in the eigth month Liu Biao died, Cao Cao arrived at Xinye in the ninth month & Liu Zong with Jing Province surrendered. Cao Cao continued to Fancheng & Xiangyang. Liu Bei fled Fancheng southwards & Guan Yu fled on the Han River towards Xiakou and the Yangtze river)
-Battle of Changban (208 ninth month/tenth month) Cao Cao chased Liu Bei southwards in an attempt to stop his retreat. Liu Bei was defeated however he was able to continue his retreat & turned eastwards towards Hanjin on the Han River. There he met with Guan Yu and sailed down the Han river towards Xiakou on the Yangtze. Cao Cao continued south and reached Jiangling on the Yangtze
-Siege of Hefei (208 twelfth month winter to 209) As Cao Cao was sailing eastwards Sun Quan laid siege to Hefei while sending Zhou Yu to aid Liu Bei at Red Cliffs. After Cao Cao's defeat at Red Cliffs Sun Quan sent Zhou Yu to take Jiangling. Cao Cao sent Zhang Xi to relieve Hefei & since Sun Quan had not yet reduced Hefei he retreated before Zhang Xi arrived
-x Battle of Red Cliffs (208 twelfth month winter) Sun Quan sent Zhou Yu to aid Liu Bei at Red Cliffs. Cao Cao's fleet was destroyed in a surprise attack by fire ships & a naval landing defeated Cao's armoured camp. Cao Cao got north west to Huarong, Jiangling and Xiangyang by tactical retreat as he was pursued along the way
-x Battle of Yiling (208 twelfth month winter) Sun Quan sent Zhou Yu to capture Jiangling, Gan Ning convinced Yiling on Jiangling's flank to surrender. Cao Ren led 6000 cavalry to retake Yiling, Ling Tong was left to guard the camp while Zhou Yu & Lu Meng took most of the army to help Gan Ning; Cao Ren did not know the Wu camp was weak and so did not attack it and was defeated fighting Gan Ning, Zhou Yu & Lu Meng
-x Battle of Jiangling (208 twelfth month winter to 209) Sun Quan sends Zhou Yu to capture Jiangling. Cao Ren is forced to retreat from the siege and Wu Kingdom capture the city. Liu Bei took possession of Jing province

Campaigns in the West and South (Hanzhong, Xiliang, Wu) (Cao Cao & Xiahou Yuan)
-Siege of Daling (211 first month spring) Shang Yao of Taiyuan rebelled & took Daling; Cao Cao sent Xiahou Yuan & Xu Huang to besiege them
-Hanzhong (211 third month) Cao Cao sent Zhong Yao & Xiahou Yuan to defeat Zhang Lu, who had occupied Hanzhong for three months in revolt; the warlords in the west rebelled so Cao Cao ordered all gnerals in the west to fortify their positions
-Battle of Tongguan (211 seventh month autumn) Zhang Lu took Hanzhong Cao Cao sent Zhong Yao & Xiahou Yuan to beat him in the third month. The lords in the west were paranoid so rebelled & Cao Cao ordered this army to meet with Cao Ren at Tong Pass and fortify it. In the Seventh month Cao Cao himself arrived as did Ma Chao & the rebel lords were defeated
-Siege of Anding (211 tenth month winter) Yang Qiu fled from Tong Pass to Anding, Cao Cao besieged him, Yang Qiu surrendered. In the twelfth month Cao Cao returned to Xuchang but left Xiahou Yuan at Changan
-Battle of Lantian (212 first month spring) Cao Cao ordered Xiahou Yuan to attack Liang Xing and the remnants of Ma Chao's army
-x Siege of Jicheng (213 first month spring to eigth month autumn) Ma Chao raises a new army from the Qiang and Hu tribes to besiege Jicheng garrisoned by Wei Kang & Yang Yue while Cao Cao was fighting Sun Quan. In the Eigth month Cao Cao sent Xiahou Yuan to relieve Jicheng without knowing it had fallen, Xiahou Yuan retreated after repeated attacks by Mao Chao
-Battle of Ruxu (213 first month Spring) Cao Cao marched south on tenth month winter of 212 and arrived at the beginning of 213. Cao Cao faced Sun Quan, Lu Meng & Gongsun Yang on the Ruxu river; Gongsun Yang was captured but the battle was a stalemate, Cao Cao returned to Ye in the fourth month/summer
-Battle of Lucheng (214 first month spring) King Qian Wan of the Di tribes rebelled, Xiahou Dun was sent to defeat them. Yang Fu, Jiang Xu, Zhao Ang & Yin Feng rebelled against Ma Chao and joined Xiahou Yuan, when Ma Chao left Jicheng to attack the rebels Zhao Qu & Liang Kuan rebelled in Jicheng & captured the city. Ma Chao was defeated at Lucheng & surrounded on three sides by Xiahou Yuan, the rebels & the garisson of Jincheng, he fled to Hanzhong to serve Zhang Lu
-Battle of the Qi Mountains (214 first month/second month spring) Qian Wan of the Di tribes joined forces with Han Sui, Xiahou Yuan tried to attack Han Sui near Jincheng & Xianqin. Han Sui fled but was pursued to Lueyang. Instead Xiahou Yuan chose to attack the Qiang tribes at Changli with part of the army. The rest of the army advanced to intercept Han Sui reinforcing the Qiang tribes. The Qiang were defeated and Xiahou Yuan ordered an attack on Han Sui's army; Han Sui was beaten and fled, Xiahou Yuan advanced to besiege the Di tribes in Xingguo
-Siege of Xingguo (214 second month) after defeating Han Sui, Xiahou Yuan besieged Qian Wen of the Di tribes in Xingguo, Qian Wen fled & Xingguo was taken. Cao Cao sent envoys to the western tribes to pacify them
-Siege of Hefei/Xiaoyao ford (214 fifth month to 215 eigth month) Sun Quan besieged the river fortress of Hefei while Cao Cao was campaigning against Zhang Lu, after months of siege he was unable to defeat Zhang Liao, Li Dian & Yue Jin. A fierce counter attack by Zhang Liao forced Sun Quan to retreat
-Battle of Fuhan (214 tenth month winter) Cao Cao sent Xiahou Yuan to march from Xingguo to attack Song Jian, his followers and army were killed & Song Jian was beheaded thus pacifiying all of Xiliang province
Campaigns in the South (Hanzhong, Shu Han, Eastern Wu) (Cao Cao, Xiahou Yuan, Cao Ren)
-Battle of Chencang/Wudu (215 second month) Cao Cao marched against Zhang Lu arriving at Chencang, he planned on passing through Di lands into Wudu but the Di tribes blocked his way, he sent Zhang He & Zhu Ling to beat them
-Battle of Hechi (215 fourth month summer to fifth month) Cao Cao marched through the San Pass arriving at Hechi. King of the Di tribes Di Doumao resisted in the mountains of that area with 10,000 men. By the fifth month Cao Cao had successfully defeated & supressed the tribes
-Battle of Yangping Pass (215 seventh month autumn) Zhang Lu, Zhang Wei & Yang Ang fortified Yangping Pass. Cao Cao attacked them but was unable to overcome the fortified pass, Cao Cao retreated. Zhang Lu's army let down their guard so Cao Cao sent Xie Piao & Gao Zuo cavalry units to go around the pass in night raid killing Yang Ren's contingent. They continued the raid to the camp of Zhang Lu & Zhang Wei at night routing them, Zhang Lu fled to Bazhong
-Siege of Hanzhong (215 seventh month autumn) after defeating Zhang Lu at Yongping Cao Cao seized Nanzheng/Hanzhong. In the eleventh month Zhang Lu surrendered Bazhong to Cao Cao
-x Battle of Baxi (215) Zhang Fei surprised the army of Zhang He through an alternate route, Zhang He was separated from Xiahou Yuan so Zhang He was defeated & withdrew to Nanzheng
-Battle of Ruxu (217 second month spring) in 216 during the tenth month Cao Cao marched south arriving at Qiao in the eleventh month. In 217 during the first month Cao Cao was at Juchao & in the second month he garissoning Haoxi Yangtze river fort. Sun Quan fortified Ruxu so Cao Cao attacked him. The fight was fierce and a raid by Gan Ning on the Wei camp forced Cao Cao to disengage. In the third month Cao Cao retreated back to Xuchang but left Xiahou Dun, Cao Ren & Zhang Liao at Juchao; Sun Quan also retreated.
-Xuchang Revolt (218 first month spring) Ji Ben, Geng Zhi & Wei Huang rebel & attack Xuchang. Cao Cao ordered the capital garisson under Wang Bi & Yan Kuang to defeat & behead them
-Battle of Xiabian (218 second month) in the tenth month of 217 Liu Bei sent Zhang Fei, Ma Chao & Wu Lan to guard Xiabian; Cao Cao sent Cao Hong to repel them. Wu Lan was left at Xiabian while Mao Chao & Zhang Fei guarded Mount Gu. In 218 he defeated Wu Lan, Lei Tong & Ren Kui sending Zhang Fei & Mao Chao their heads as they crossed into Hanzhong, they retreated by the third month
-Battle of Dai (218 fourth month summer) Shangyu and Wuchendi of the Wuhuan tribes rebelled. Cao Cao sent his son Cao Zhang to defend Dai commandery. Cao Zhang's reinforcements had not yet arrived so Cao Zhang fortified the passes, the stronger enemy was beaten and retreated Cao Zhang ordered pursuit and killed many of them. Kebineng of the Xianbei also submitted to the Wei Kingdom
-Battle of Yangping pass (218 seventh month) Liu Bei was in standoff against Xiahou Yuan at Yangping, he sent Chen Shi to attack Mamingge but was beaten by Xu Huang. Liu Bei then attacked Zhang He at Guangshi but lost. He requested reinforcements from Zhuge Liang at Chengdu. Zhuge Liang took the advice of Yang Hong & placed Yi province on "total war"
-Siege of Wan (218 tenth month winter to 219 first month winter) Cao Cao arrived at Changan in the ninth month but in the tenth month Hou Yin rebelled at Wan, Cao Cao recalled Cao Ren from attacking Guan Yu in Jing province and ordered him west to attack Wan. By the first month of the next year Cao Ren took Wan and beheaded Hou Yin
-x Battle of Mount Dingjun (219 first month) Liu Bei crossed the Mian river to advance south of Yangping pass towards Hanzhong through the mountains & made camp at Mount Dingjun. Xiahou Yuan & Zhang He followed and made camp nearby. Liu Bei ambushed their camp at night and attacked Zhang He, Xiahou Yuan sent half his troops in support another attack by Liu Bei broke the line and killed Xiahou Yuan. Zhang He fled north of the Han river to set up camp, Liu Bei did not cross after them. Zhang He replaced Xiahou Yuan as commander.
-Battle of Yangping pass (219 first month) Cao Cao sent Cao Zhen to reinforce Zhang He after the death of Xiahou Yuan. Cao Zhen ordered Xu Huang to attack Gao Xiang and won a temporary victory
-Battle of Yangping pass (219 third month to fourth month) Cao Cao arrived in Hanzhong from Changan through the Xia valley. Liu Bei did not engage Cao Cao's army refusing to cross the Han River. Small scale skirmishes around the Yangping pass were fruitless as Liu Bei was conservative with his forces. Cao Cao was unable to assault the many passes as Liu Bei fortified them & retreated each time
-Battle of the Han river (219 fourth month) Huang Zhong led troops to raid Wei's supply lines, Zheng He stopped him & Xu Huang flanked him. Zhao Yun brought a relief force and they were able to fight their way back to the camp. Cao Cao crossed the Han to attack Zhao Yun near the Yangping pass, Zhao Yun retreated to his camp & Cao Cao did not wish to assault the fortified area. After small skrimishes around the fort Cao Cao's army was in disorder so retreated from the pass across the Han river. In the fifth month summer Cao Cao chose to give up Hanzhong & retreated to Changan, arriving in the tenth month
-Siege of Fancheng (219 fifth month to tenth month) Guan Yu besieged Cao Ren at Fancheng so Cao Cao sent Yu Jin & Pang De to relieve him. In the eigth month the Han river overflowed so Guan Yu attacked thus killing Pang de & Yu Jin & their army; Guan Yu encircled Cao Ren so Cao Cao sent Xu Huang to relieve him. In the tenth month Sun Quan offered to attack Guan Yu, Cao Cao also marched with a relief force for Cao Ren. At the same time Guan Yu split his army into two camps, Weitou & Sizhong. Xu Huang spread the rumour he would attack Weitou but attacked Sizhong. Guan Yu went from Weitou towards Sizhong to relieve it but on his way was attacked by Xu Huang, Guan Yu fled to jing province but was immediately invaded by Sun Quan. Cao Cao was marching towards Fancheng & was at Mo slope, he went back arriving at Luoyang first month 220; on March 15 Cao Cao died at Luoyang aged 66 years old.
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