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Old December 9th, 2011, 01:54 AM   #1
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The Scots in Poland


William Lithgow, from Lanarkshire, who for nineteen years travelled in distant countries and stayed for some time in Poland, at the beginning of the seventeenth century.
In his memoir, often reprinted, he writes as follows:

Being arrived in Krakow ... the capital city of Poland I met with diverse Scottish merchants, who were wonderful glad of mine arrival there, especially the two brothers Dicksons, men of singular note of honesty and wealth.... Here (at Lublin) I found abundance of gallant, rich merchants, my countrymen, who were all very kind to me and so were they by the way in every place where I came, the conclusion being ever sealed with deep draughts, and God be with you. Then he calls Poland 'populous of strangers' and continues: And for auspiciousness, I may rather term it to be a mother and nurse for the youth and younglings of Scotland who are yearly sent hither in great numbers, than a proper Dame for her own birth; in clothing, feeding, and enriching them with the fatness of her best things; besides thirty thousand Scots families, that live incorporate in her bowels. And certainly Poland may be termed in this kind to be the mother of our Commons and the first commencement of all our best merchants' wealth, or at least most part of them.

In his edict, signed at Niepolomice in 1585, The Polish-Lithuanian King Stephen Batory declared:


The Scots who always follow Our Court and who are at liberty in all places, where We and Our Royal Court stay, to exhibit their wares and to sell them, complain that they are prevented by Our faithful subjects from exercising their privileges granted by Us, in Cracow likewise.
Now We command you to put nothing in their way in this business, especially not to hinder those to whom We have given liberty of trading and-assigned a certain district .... For if they on account of the future of their trade should leave Our Court none of you indeed will follow Us into Lithuania*** and other places. Our Court can not be without them, that supply Us with all that is necessary. It is just, therefore, that they should enjoy the same privileges in Cracow as elsewhere. They have also supplied Us well in former times of war. Let a certain district be assigned to them. This We command Our faithful subjects.

You can read more about it here
Poland and Scotland

How come the Scots choose Poland?

They say that more then 30,000 Scottish families lived in the PLC.
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Old December 9th, 2011, 03:33 AM   #2

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I have been in the village which in Polish is named "Szkocja" what means "Scotland" because it was populated by Scotish setlers.
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Old December 9th, 2011, 05:22 AM   #3
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I have been in the village which in Polish is named "Szkocja" what means "Scotland" because it was populated by Scotish setlers.
Cool.

Heard that there are pretty many who got scottish ancestry in Poland. Hence the gringers in Poland (cant be true?)
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Old December 9th, 2011, 10:52 AM   #4
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The Scots chose Sweden as well. For a recent study see:

Alexia Grosjean, An Unofficial Alliance, Scotland and Sweden, 1569-1654. (Brill, 2003)

Many Scots served in the Swedish army, in their own regiments and otherwise. Some figures (not sure how accurate) claim as many as 50,000 Scots went through the ranks from about 1600 to 1639.

A sizeable number of Scottish immigrants stayed and some founded noble houses with names such as Forbes, King, Stewart, Robertson, MacDougal, Gordon, Kinnemond, Ruthven and others.

Alexander Leslie was a field marshal in the Swedish army before returning to Scotland at the beginning of the English civil wars. Robert Douglas also rose to field marshal under Karl X.

Interesting stuff.
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Old December 9th, 2011, 12:07 PM   #5

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Those damn Scots got everywhere:-

Russia - Generals James Bruce, Patrick Gordon, Alexander Leslie and George Ogilvie, at least one poet - Mikhail Lermontov (parents from Fife).
All over Scandinavia and the Baltic, France, Germany and the Low Countries. They also made up a large chunk of Gustav II Adolph's army.
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Old December 10th, 2011, 03:09 AM   #6
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From as far back as the mid-15th century there were Scots trading and settling in Poland. A Scot's Pedlar Pack in Poland, which became a proverbial expression, usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods and linen handkerchiefs. Itinerants also sold tin and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the protection offered by King Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576 a district in Krakow was assigned to Scots immigrants.
Records from 1592 reveal Scots settlers being granted citizenship of Krakow giving their employment as trader or merchant. Payment for being granted citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a holding.
By the 17th century there were an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Scots living in Poland. Many came from Dundee and Aberdeen and could be found in Polish towns from Krakow to Lublin. Settlers from Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders, there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656 a number of Scottish Highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell's rule went to Poland in the service of the King of Sweden.


The Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, the Scottish settlers in Poland gave generously.


Many Royal Grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 18th century at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. Bonnie Prince Charlie was half Polish, being the son of James Edward Stewart and Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski, King of Poland. The City of Warsaw elected a Scottish immigrant Aleksander Czamer (Alexander Chalmers) as the mayor.

Scottish people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Seriously did not even know that the Scotts had such strong connection to Poland.
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Old December 11th, 2011, 02:51 AM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Chookie View Post
Those damn Scots got everywhere:-

Russia - Generals James Bruce, Patrick Gordon, Alexander Leslie and George Ogilvie, at least one poet - Mikhail Lermontov (parents from Fife).
All over Scandinavia and the Baltic, France, Germany and the Low Countries. They also made up a large chunk of Gustav II Adolph's army.
Chookie, not only in Europe. In Australia, they have been always on the cutting edge of Australian frontiers together with Irishmen’s. If you will read about pioneering frontiersmen, they will be plenty of sturdy Scots and Irishmen in the front line.
In PLC Scotsmen learned a permanent place in Polish literature. The Nobel Prize winner in literature, Henryk Sienkiewicz, created a beautiful character of Ketling, Scot mercenary who for his heroic deeds and loyality in service of PLC was knighted by PLC king.
During WWII, part of Polish Army in the west was billeted in Scotland. I have heard many good stories about Polish Scots friendship from that difficult time.

Last edited by Edward; December 11th, 2011 at 03:00 AM.
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Old December 11th, 2011, 12:34 PM   #8

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Quote:
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During WWII, part of Polish Army in the west was billeted in Scotland. I have heard many good stories about Polish Scots friendship from that difficult time.
After WWII, many came back and married locals - there are many families in Scotland with Polish surnames from that time. Just as there are many Poles and other Eastern Europeans working here......

But it wasn't just Australia that we explored/ settled/ exploited. You could add Canada, the USA, New Zealand, Africa, India, Singapore and Hong Kong (the last two developed to service the opium trade).
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Old December 11th, 2011, 12:41 PM   #9

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Chookie View Post
Those damn Scots got everywhere:-

Russia - Generals James Bruce, Patrick Gordon, Alexander Leslie and George Ogilvie, at least one poet - Mikhail Lermontov (parents from Fife).
All over Scandinavia and the Baltic, France, Germany and the Low Countries. They also made up a large chunk of Gustav II Adolph's army.
My and kimi's Prime minister is of Scotish descendance, David MacAllister. He is the son of James Buchanan McAllister from Glagow, who served in Germany in the Royal Corps of Signals and in WWII as captain of the 51st Highland Infantry Division. David MacAllister is still of British and German dual citizenship.
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Old December 11th, 2011, 01:36 PM   #10

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In the result of religious persecuations on British Isles large number of Scots migrated to Poland - Lithuania in the 16th and 17th century.

Two first known Scots in Poland were students who came to study at Cracow University, one in 1438 AD and second in 1453 AD. Many Scots were trading in Gdansk (Danzig) and some settled there. Since that time there was a district in the city which was called New Scots. From the year 1573 all the Scots in Poland were benefit from the religious tollerance and built whatever churches they wanted basing on the articles of Warsaw Confederation. The confederation created a legal basis for a new political system and at the same time secured the unity of the state which had been inhabited for generations by communities from different ethnic backgrounds (Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenian, Germans, Armenians, Wlachians, Dutch, Tatars, and Scotts) and of different denominations (Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, and Muslim).

Scots were called in Poland "Szots" and worked as merchants and soldiers in the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania. In year 1603 King of Poland and Lithuania Sigismundus III Vasa has nominated the Scot Abraham Jung who was commander of Scotish infantry in Polish army - a governor of all Scotts in Poland, giving him the judical and administrative powers over them.

In 1620 Scot James Murray was nominated for the chief enginier of Polish navy (servitor–architectus navalis), which 7 yearts later achieved victory over Swedes at the battle of Oliva (under command of dutch immigrant and admiral of Polish navy Arend Dickmann, dutch Arend Dijckman).

In year 1650 the Parliament of Poland and Lithuania introduced the tax on Scots 1/10 of all their property and sent it to support Charles II, king of England and Scotland. Because of this tax we know that in Poland was living that time about 30.000 Scots.

At the Warsaw University survived so called Green Book originally titled: Original Records of those Scots in Poland known as the Scottish Brotherhood at Lublin) cantaining the many informations and documents of Scotish community in the city of Lublin, the book begins in year 1680 and ends in 1731.

Because Scots were living in Poland for many centuries most of them assimilated with local population and their surnames were polonised. For example the familly of Chalmers became Czamer, Cochrane became Czochran, Jackson - Dziaksen, Cockburn - Kabron, Macleod - Machlejd, Sinclair - Szynkler.

On the territory of modern Poland are at least 10 villages which are called "Szkocja" what in Polish means "Scotland" or "Nowa Szkocja" (New Scotland) or "Szoty" (Scots). In many of them still live descendants of Scots altough their names were polonised.

Aleksander Czamer (orginal Alexander Chalmers) was a native Scott who imigrated to Poland in XVII century and during the reign of king August II was 4 times elected for major of City of Warsaw. He was burried in the Cathedral of St. John in Warsaw where is still his grave.
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