The Mechanical Turk or Automaton Chess Player
" a fake [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess"]chess[/ame]-playing [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence"]machine[/ame] constructed in the late 18th century. From 1770 until its destruction by fire in 1854, it was exhibited by various owners as an [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automaton"]automaton[/ame], though it was exposed in the early 1820s as an elaborate [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoax"]hoax[/ame].
Constructed and unveiled in 1770 by [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_von_Kempelen"]Wolfgang von Kempelen[/ame] (1734–1804) to impress the Empress [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Theresa_of_Austria"]Maria Theresa[/ame], the mechanism appeared to be able to play a strong game of chess against a human opponent, as well as perform the knight's tour
, a puzzle that requires the player to move a knight
to occupy every square of a [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chessboard"]chessboard[/ame] exactly once.
The Turk was in fact a mechanical illusion
that allowed a human chess master hiding inside to operate the machine. With a skilled operator, the Turk won most of the games played during its demonstrations around [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe"]Europe[/ame] and the Americas for nearly 84 years, playing and defeating many challengers including statesmen such as [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_I_of_France"]Napoleon Bonaparte[/ame] and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin"]Benjamin Franklin[/ame]. Although many had suspected the hidden human operator, the hoax was revealed only in the 1820s by the Londoner Robert Willis
The operator(s) within the mechanism during Kempelen's original tour remains a mystery. When the device was later purchased in 1804 and exhibited by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel
, the chess masters who secretly operated it included [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Baptist_Allgaier"]Johann Allgaier[/ame], Boncourt
, [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Alexandre"]Aaron Alexandre[/ame], William Lewis
, Jacques Mouret
, and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Schlumberger"]William Schlumberger[/ame]."
[ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Turk]The Turk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]