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Old November 14th, 2012, 10:22 AM   #21

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They were very close to the periphery of Tezpur, a major city of Assam. (Even Nehru lost hope for North eastern states - his famous remark "My heart goes for the people of Assam") However winter was coming and there wasn't any proper supply lines to support further incursion into India through the Himalayan range. The reason they withdrew even thaugh they considered the conquered area part of their territory. Even today they are claiming that area as part of China.

(Btw incase you aren't aware The border dispute between India and China involves 1/5th of the one state and another entire state of India!!!)
That doesnt mean they ever intended to take it, the policitial/diplomatic penalty would be too high. That war had more limited goals.
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Old November 14th, 2012, 10:30 AM   #22

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That doesnt mean they ever intended to take it, the policitial/diplomatic penalty would be too high. That war had more limited goals.
They still claim Arunachal pradesh (known as NEFA in 1962) as part of China. So i don't see any reason why they didn't maintain their control on the NEFA when they captured it in 1962 rather than withdrawing from the area.
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Old November 14th, 2012, 12:33 PM   #23

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Not fortifications per se, but there were a number of battles in the ACW that terrain advantage played a significant role. Cemetery ridge and Marye's heights immediately spring to mind. The Confederates occupied the high ground at Marye's heights and mowed down brigade after brigade of the attacking Federals. The tables were turned at Gettysburg, but the results weren't as clearly one-sided.

Marye's Heights
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Southern end of Cemetery Ridge
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Old November 15th, 2012, 12:53 PM   #24

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They still claim Arunachal pradesh (known as NEFA in 1962) as part of China. So i don't see any reason why they didn't maintain their control on the NEFA when they captured it in 1962 rather than withdrawing from the area.
Plenty of reasons, such as world wide outrage etc etc. Their war wasnt to gain so much, but more to return to a status quo on the border that had been eroded (I believe).
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Old November 15th, 2012, 01:56 PM   #25

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good luck getting in to the Indian Janjira fort.
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Old November 15th, 2012, 02:05 PM   #26

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The Venetian lagoon and its surrounding marshes proved to be an excellent defence system, protecting the city from bellicose neighbours and foreign powers alike throughout history.
Another level of natural defence was provided by Anopheles mosquitoes, carrying the deadly malaria(especially lethal during the summertime); this very disease was one of the main factors responsible for the defeat of the Franks at Albiola(810), who suffered enormous sanitary problems while besieging the Venetian lagoon.
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Another examples of this defensive system, albeit on a smaller scale, assured the development and the prosperity of the town of Ravenna.
Ravenna, ignored by the Romans during their conquest of Northern Italy(its marshes were not worthy of military efforts), funnily enough later became the capital of the Western Roman Empire(402), considered easier to defend and supply than Rome and Mediolanum...Rome was sacked 8 years later.

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Old November 15th, 2012, 02:13 PM   #27

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Wasn't Durham a a natural palce for a castle

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Edinburgh is also a natural castle

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Old November 15th, 2012, 03:43 PM   #28

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This is Hoyop-Hoyopan cave, found in Camalig, Albay, Philippines, which was used by Filipino guerrilla being their camp during the Japanese occupation in WW2:




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Old November 15th, 2012, 10:43 PM   #29

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Regarding natural characteristics which have been playing a decisive defensive role, before of the introduction of air force and long range missiles there were some with even a planetary geopolitical importance.

The Northern Ice Cap. It has been a superb defense against sea - land invasions for centuries [and still it is].

The oceans in general
, but as "auxiliary defensive aid". Huge distances to cover navigating force an eventual attacking power to use an enormous fleet. Not only expensive, but easy to attack in the water [by subs, by planes, by missiles ...].

The oceans worked very well to defense the territory of US and Canada during WW I and even more during WW II. But of course, oceans alone are not enough, anyway they add a lot of difficulties to the invaders [without UK in front of the European continent something like the D-Day would have been extremely difficult to organize and to carry out].
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Old November 16th, 2012, 02:56 AM   #30

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São Marcelo Fort in Brazil

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