I didn't wake up tonight until after it was over. If I'd known this would be on PBS, I would have woke earlier and watched. Now I'm looking for the replay (PBS always repeats everything.)
Ferguson borrowed that title from a book Arnold Toynbee wrote decades ago. My guess is that it's about how the West has come to dominate the rest of the world. For example, any developing country seen to be making progress is seen as adopting Western ways, such as China for a top example.
I need to hunt for the replay of Part One, but I hope I remember what night next week Part Two is aired.