Sounds more like Hamilton than Jefferson. Hamilton was a poor boy, but very bright and industrious. Both he and Burr graduated from Columbia Univ. after only a couple of years study. Both became aides to General Washington, though Burr left for a more active role. Hamilton remained with Washington throughout the War, and was privileged to one of the final assaults at Yorktown. Hamilton became our first Secretary of the Treasury, and among other significant policies, was a great believer in the Federal Government support for manufacturing and industrial development.
Most of the other Founders were landed gentry and many of them looked down on business as a profession. This quote would not likely have come from Jefferson, or most other Founders.
So, look to quotations from Hamilton. He didn't write his memoroirs, but was a major author of the Federalist Papers. Start there with Hamilton's essays.