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Old November 28th, 2016, 03:56 PM   #21

Kahu's Avatar
Joined: May 2015
From: Wellington, New Zealand
Posts: 737
Blog Entries: 1
History too recent ...

Originally Posted by Kahu View Post
History is a little too recent here for what I think you're suggesting here ...
I'll give just a very recent example ...
The government has apologised to Wairoa iwi and hapu at the signing of a $100 million Treaty of Waitangi settlement.

Following a ceremony between the Crown and Te Tira Whakaemi o Te Wairoa at Takitimu Marae in Hawke's Bay today, Treaty Negotiations Minister Chris Finlayson said the settlement provided for a stronger cultural and economic future.

The settlement provides an acknowledgement, apology and redress for the Crown's historical breaches of the Treaty.

"The historical grievances of Te Wairoa iwi and hapu relate to the loss of the vast majority of their rohe, intense military campaigns and socio-economic deprivation, the effects of which can still be seen today," Mr Finlayson said.

He was earlier welcomed onto the marae with a powhiri.

The confiscations and illegal imprisonment occurred during Te Kooti's War ... one of the last actions in the NZ Land Wars.

The conflict was sparked by Te Kooti's return to New Zealand after two years of internment on the Chatham Islands, from where he had escaped with almost 200 Māori prisoners of war and their families. Te Kooti, who had been held without trial on the island for two years, told the government he and his followers wished to be left in peace and would fight only if pursued and attacked. But two weeks after their return to New Zealand, members of Te Kooti's party found themselves being pursued by a force of militia, government troops and Māori volunteers. Te Kooti's force routed them in an ambush, seizing arms, ammunition, food and horses. The engagement was the first in what became a four-year guerrilla war, involving more than 30 expeditions by colonial and Māori troops against Te Kooti's dwindling number of warriors.

Pre-Gandhian Non-violent political actions

Compensation Court
A Compensation Court was set up under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 to compensate some of those whose land was confiscated by the Crown. The compensation process and its outcomes added to the uncertainty, distress, and confusion among the people of Ngati Tama as to where they were to live and whether they had security of title. Those considered to be rebels could not make claims. All of the Compensation Court awards within the rohe of Ngati Tama were based on out-of-court settlements. By the time these were made, most of the readily usable land in the north had already been disposed of by the Crown. These settlements were not properly investigated by the Compensation Court. All of the awards made by the Compensation Court on the basis of these settlements were made to individuals, rather than to hapu. Often awards did not include traditional whanau and hapu land. The awards did not reflect customary forms of land tenure. Out of some 74 000 acres confiscated from Ngati Tama, 3 458 acres were awarded to Ngati Tama individuals. By 1880, title had not been issued to this land. Some claimants were informally aware of the location of their awards and believed they had a right to occupy the land, only to find that it was classified as Crown land. In 1867, the Crown promised awards of land to the absentee owners from each iwi. By 1880, these awards were still undefined on the ground:


The prophets Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi introduced a policy of passive resistance to the surveyors and the European settlers who followed. Prior to the Crown’s attack on Parihaka, this policy was supported by the people of Ngati Tama and other iwi. Such resistance in 1879–80 led to more than 420 “ploughmen” and 216 “fencers” being arrested. Most were denied a trial and many prisoners were held in the South Island. Prison conditions were harsh and included hard labour:

On 5 November 1881, more than 1 500 Crown troops invaded and occupied the settlement of Parihaka. Over the following days, some 1 600 Maori were forcibly expelled from Parihaka and made to return to their own settlements. Houses and crops were systematically destroyed, and stock was driven away or killed. Taranaki Maori report that women were raped and otherwise molested by soldiers:

The leaders of Parihaka, Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi, were arrested, and special legislation provided for their imprisonment without trial:
Ngati Tama Claims Settlement Act 2003 No 126 (as at 20 May 2014), Public Act Preamble ? New Zealand Legislation

These, and other settlement actions to repair the faults and injustices of the past have unfortunately set up reactions by mainly pakeha groups against the settlement process claiming racial bias against them and other immigrant groups.
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