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Medieval and Byzantine History Medieval and Byzantine History Forum - Period of History between classical antiquity and modern times, roughly the 5th through 16th Centuries


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Old February 8th, 2018, 04:47 PM   #1
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Impact of Crusades on Medieval Europe


Need help on an open response, and also just interested to see the responses.
I think some of the important impacts are:
1. Trade increasing
2. Merchants and artisan classes emerging
3.Growth of towns and cities through charters
4.Deaths of many peasants causing the supply of them go down; demand stays the same. This results in the peasants no longer being the poorest of the poor.
5.Lots of nobility dies; more land/power to king
6.Feudalism and Manorialism breaks down.
7.Classic Texts such as the works of Aristotle are brought back to Europe; people start asking questions.
8. New architecture such as stone castles
9.Scholarship increases, charter universities founded.
10.Plague devastates Europe;thought to have been caused by trade and rats.
This is only what I learned in school, any other information would be helpful.
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Old February 8th, 2018, 10:37 PM   #2

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Crusades created the suitable context for the development of early forms of banking. The Templars begun to use something like banknotes. After the creation of the Christian States in the Holy Land, when a rich knight, a noble had to leave for the Crusades, he didn’t carry with him money and precious metals [too many risks during the travel]. He consigned the money to the monks c/o a house of the Order. The Knights gave him a piece of paper stating how much money he had [a certificate of depot, substantially a banknote]. When the crusader reached the Holy Land he showed that piece of paper to the Templars there and the Templars gave him money …
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Old February 9th, 2018, 01:04 AM   #3
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I thought the Black Death spread to the Middle East and Europe as a result of the later Mongol conquests, not as a result of the Crusades? Points #4 and #6 are a pretty direct result of #10, also #5 is at least partially due to the plague.

The Crusades strongly contributed to the Renaissance and the Mongol invasions (via the Black Death) strongly contributed to the end of feudalism. Both together lead Europe into the Modern period.
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Old February 9th, 2018, 02:17 AM   #4

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Quote:
Originally Posted by a123 View Post
Need help on an open response, and also just interested to see the responses.
I think some of the important impacts are:
1. Trade increasing
2. Merchants and artisan classes emerging
3.Growth of towns and cities through charters
4.Deaths of many peasants causing the supply of them go down; demand stays the same. This results in the peasants no longer being the poorest of the poor.
5.Lots of nobility dies; more land/power to king
6.Feudalism and Manorialism breaks down.
7.Classic Texts such as the works of Aristotle are brought back to Europe; people start asking questions.
8. New architecture such as stone castles
9.Scholarship increases, charter universities founded.
10.Plague devastates Europe;thought to have been caused by trade and rats.
This is only what I learned in school, any other information would be helpful.
To be honest I don't recognise any of this regarding Castille and Aragon, at least. I think you are over-estimating the effects of the crusades, which were spurious expeditions sometimes decades apart.

Or rather your school was!
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Old February 9th, 2018, 02:53 AM   #5

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4.Deaths of many peasants causing the supply of them go down; demand stays the same. This results in the peasants no longer being the poorest of the poor.
But if peasants weren't the poorest of the poor anymore, who occupied that place in society? And if there is less people overall, why does 'demand' stay the same?

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8. New architecture such as stone castles
They already existed when the crusades began. Stone castles became more common in Europe after the crusades, but why would that be a consequence of these European invasions of other places?
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Old February 9th, 2018, 05:37 AM   #6

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Quote:
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But if peasants weren't the poorest of the poor anymore, who occupied that place in society? And if there is less people overall, why does 'demand' stay the same?



They already existed when the crusades began. Stone castles became more common in Europe after the crusades, but why would that be a consequence of these European invasions of other places?
Good remarks.

Regarding stone castles, already Romans built them [the "castra", plural of "castrum"]. The "castra stativa" [the stable strongholds of the legions] had concrete walls made of stones or of bricks and they were well fortified. They had nothing to envy to later medieval castles. It's almost a convention that these were "fortresses" and not proper "castles".
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Old February 9th, 2018, 01:14 PM   #7
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William's eldest son pawning his duchy to fight in the Crusades is responsible for England and Normandy remaining unified beyond William the Conqueror's death. England's control of Normandy had huge ripples on European history and without the Crusades it's very likely England and Normandy would have never been unified and thus no conflict with the French etc etc.
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Old February 9th, 2018, 06:31 PM   #8

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from what i know #7 was more intrinsic with the 'Toledo School of Translators' than the crusades;
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Old February 10th, 2018, 01:25 AM   #9

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One might also consider that none of the Crusades achieved any success apart from the First. The biggest impact of the Crusades may have been the destruction of the (Christian) Byzantine Empire in 1204.

Also one can remember the crusades against the Cathars in France, as well as the crusades against "Pagans" in northern Europe. All of the crusades involved mass genocide against civilian populations.

The Crusades are simply one more ugly atrocity in the brutal history of man.
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Old February 10th, 2018, 02:00 AM   #10

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One might also consider that none of the Crusades achieved any success apart from the First.
In military terms the second crusade was also quite successful, although far away from the Middle East.

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Originally Posted by SufiMystic View Post
Also one can remember the crusades against the Cathars in France, as well as the crusades against "Pagans" in northern Europe. All of the crusades involved mass genocide against civilian populations.

The Crusades are simply one more ugly atrocity in the brutal history of man.
Bloody and brutal they were, as many military movements, calling it “mass genocide” seems exaggerated. When we really have a “mass genocide”, what will we call it? It is both a question of numbers and terminology.
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