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Old February 22nd, 2008, 10:39 AM   #1

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How were The Crusades Financed


I have to write an essay on this, and I figured that I could ask some you people to shed light and give me some information or websites. It would be much appreciated.
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Old February 22nd, 2008, 08:06 PM   #2

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Re: How were The Crusades Financed


Mainly banking activities of the Templars. Which, itself, was an outgrowth of their logistics system. Templars provided transport for pilgrims to the Holy Land, but people didn't want to carry all their gold with them ... so the Templars set up a kind of banking system to allow people to redeem money at their destination. It was very succesful and spread beyond its original pilgrimage purposes.

Also taxes were levied. Both the papacy and secular kings like Henry II levied new taxes to pay for the Crusades.

Last edited by Edgewaters; February 22nd, 2008 at 08:10 PM.
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Old February 23rd, 2008, 08:45 PM   #3

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Re: How were The Crusades Financed


Individuals financed themselves - notables sold their estates to raise money, monarchs taxed their peoples to raise money - the general folk would have sold off whatever they could, and carried what little they owned.

The Templars, for the latter Crusades (they were founded in the First Crusade), would have acted as bankers - as would the Church.
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Old February 24th, 2008, 08:35 PM   #4

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Re: How were The Crusades Financed


I believe that the church also protected the lands and goods of the crusaders while they were away, ensuring that they would still be his when he returned. Many also renounced their claims to disputed lands in exchange for money.

If you're looking for a general history, The Crusades by Jonathan Riley-Smith is a good one.
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Old February 25th, 2008, 01:26 AM   #5

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Re: How were The Crusades Financed


Or anything by Tom Asbridge - these two are the "new" guard (of crusade history).

Runciman is still a good starting point though.
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Old November 21st, 2012, 07:16 AM   #6
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Mainly banking activities of the Templars. Which, itself, was an outgrowth of their logistics system. Templars provided transport for pilgrims to the Holy Land, but people didn't want to carry all their gold with them ... so the Templars set up a kind of banking system to allow people to redeem money at their destination. It was very succesful and spread beyond its original pilgrimage purposes.
right but according to a demurger we can't call that banker's acts because there weren't any usure.

Moreover everey monks orders had done that.
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Old November 21st, 2012, 08:25 AM   #7

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right but according to a demurger we can't call that banker's acts because there weren't any usure.

Moreover everey monks orders had done that.
The Templars DID engage in usury, although like modern day "islamic" banking they used many dodges to avoid Church edicts. A Crusader may put his estates under the care of the Order while he was away on campaign, for this the Order took part or all of the revenue of the estate as "rent". They also charged up-front fees for financial transactions or insisted that the Crusader purchase his supplies, horses, transport etc. from Templar agencies with appropriate extra profit margins.
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Old November 21st, 2012, 08:44 AM   #8

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The Templars DID engage in usury, although like modern day "islamic" banking they used many dodges to avoid Church edicts. A Crusader may put his estates under the care of the Order while he was away on campaign, for this the Order took part or all of the revenue of the estate as "rent". They also charged up-front fees for financial transactions or insisted that the Crusader purchase his supplies, horses, transport etc. from Templar agencies with appropriate extra profit margins.

God bless em, Knights tempars PLC . In addition to which priests were offering unconditional absolution for peasents and nobles alike. @ Dont worry about the sins you have commited, go on Crusade and they will be forgiven@ A powerful incentive IMHO
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Old November 21st, 2012, 08:46 AM   #9
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The Templars DID engage in usury, although like modern day "islamic" banking they used many dodges to avoid Church edicts. A Crusader may put his estates under the care of the Order while he was away on campaign, for this the Order took part or all of the revenue of the estate as "rent". They also charged up-front fees for financial transactions or insisted that the Crusader purchase his supplies, horses, transport etc. from Templar agencies with appropriate extra profit margins.
yes, this is trade but not usury.The fact is that we don't any SOURCE who shows usury.
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Old November 21st, 2012, 08:22 PM   #10
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I have to write an essay on this, and I figured that I could ask some you people to shed light and give me some information or websites. It would be much appreciated.
The Crusades were virtually never self-financing, en spite of the sometimes spectacular plundering, particularly after the Fall of Constantinople in 1204; the expenditures and losses were almost always significantly greater.

The complexity of the financing of this remote warfare was quite different from the plunder of the intermitent warfare in Europe, so it became an stimulus for the re-emergence of banking techniques; i.e. the first attested bill of exchange was issued at Genoa in 1156.

The financing system evolved considerably through time.

The First Crusade and related expeditions were largely self-financing by any conceivable mean but especially through loans, typically mortgages; monasteries were presumably the greatest creditors.

Once the First Crusade demonstrate the immense costs of Holy War in practice, the monarchs involved in the later Crusades recurred to progressively heavier taxation.

It is possible that Louis VII may have raised a royal levy for the Second Crusade.
Both the aforementioned French king and Henry II of England certainly levied such taxes for the Crusades by the 1160s
The heavy Saladin Tithe for the Third Crusade is probably the better known example.

For the Fourth Crusade ecclesiastical taxing was added to the secular one by Innocenzo III since 1199.

To these universal taxes sometimes local taxes were added too, for example in France for the Albigensian Crusade.

It was estimated by the French Crown that even the relatively minor VII Crusade of 1248-1254 officially costed Louis IX of France no less than six times his typical budgetable annual income, even excluding the at least equivalent subsides from his subjects and other Crusaders and several unaccounted costs; some modern authors tend to estimate at least the double of that figure.

The ecclesiastical financing system matured by 1274 (when the decline of the Crusades themselves was already irreversible) when the Pope Gregorio X divided Christendom into twenty-six collectorates.

In economic terms, the most relevant result of the "Crusade spirit" was this innovative concept that all society along Christendom must contribute to sustain those who risked their lives purportedly to protect the common good of the Church.
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