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Old January 29th, 2017, 08:01 PM   #1

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Let's discuss Yemen and its development


According to the Wikipedia article, which I understand to be rather introductory materials, the area of current Yemen was home to many civilizations.
Of course, the research on pre-Islamic civilizations has been suppressed under Islam.
On the other hand, is the record of pre-Islamic Southern Arabia distorted or simply hidden?
How reliable are these records on Wikipedia?
Before the wide application of petroleum, the area of Yemen was the relatively fertile and moist part of Arabia, and it was called "happy Arabia".
Was ancient Yemen really that prosperous?
During the beginning of Islamic era, the area of Yemen was still arguably the most advanced part of Arabia.
Even during the Islamic Era, a few dynasties thrived an fell until the Ottoman conquest, and foreign controls were on and off.
How did Yemen get to the current low point?
If it had a relatively prosperous days, how did it compare with its contemporaries?
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Old January 30th, 2017, 12:34 AM   #2
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Quote:
Originally Posted by VHS View Post
According to the Wikipedia article, which I understand to be rather introductory materials, the area of current Yemen was home to many civilizations.
Of course, the research on pre-Islamic civilizations has been suppressed under Islam.
On the other hand, is the record of pre-Islamic Southern Arabia distorted or simply hidden?
How reliable are these records on Wikipedia?
Before the wide application of petroleum, the area of Yemen was the relatively fertile and moist part of Arabia, and it was called "happy Arabia".
Was ancient Yemen really that prosperous?
During the beginning of Islamic era, the area of Yemen was still arguably the most advanced part of Arabia.
Even during the Islamic Era, a few dynasties thrived an fell until the Ottoman conquest, and foreign controls were on and off.
How did Yemen get to the current low point?
If it had a relatively prosperous days, how did it compare with its contemporaries?
the dominance of Northern Arabs post Caliphate ruined them for good. Southern Arabs were always superior to Northern Arabs. Besides once Yemen had strong jewish and christian past compared to the more pagan ones in the north.
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Old January 30th, 2017, 07:32 AM   #3

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Quote:
Originally Posted by VHS
Before the wide application of petroleum, the area of Yemen was the relatively fertile and moist part of Arabia, and it was called "happy Arabia".
Was ancient Yemen really that prosperous?
I think Yemen is still the most fertile part of Arabia but unlike other parts it has no oil.
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Old January 30th, 2017, 07:37 AM   #4

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what exactly do you want us to discuss ? Was Yemen a home of great civilizations ? yes definitely, Yemen hosted many small flourishing kingdoms, all the the city-states and 5 main Sabaean tribes Azd, Hamdan, Lakhm, Tayy, kindah, were united under one rule as far as 800 B.C. it continued ruling southern Arabia with iron fist, although tribe rebellions here and there, and some independent kingdoms challenged their rule.

BTW most Arabians are descendent from Yemen, and some of the Gulf Ruling families are Yemeni by origin.

Anyway, this is a list of the southern Arabian kingdoms, that i know of.

1- Sabaean kingdom :

Established : 1200 B.C - 800 B.C
Disestablished : CE 275

The Sabaeans, like the other Yemenite kingdoms of the same period, were involved in the extremely lucrative spice trade, especially frankincense and myrrh.

Sirwah temple 700 B.C. :

Click the image to open in full size.

Click the image to open in full size.[

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Hadramout kingdom :

The first known inscriptions of Hadramawt are known from the 8th century BCE. It was first referenced by an outside civilization in Sabaean inscription of Karab'il Watar from the early 7th century BCE, in which the King of aramawtt, Yada''il, is mentioned as being one of his allies. When the Minaeans took control of the caravan routes in the 4th century BCE, however, Hadramawt became one of its confederates, probably because of commercial interests. It later became independent and was invaded by the growing kingdom of Himyar toward the end of the 1st century BCE, but it was able to repel the attack. aramawt annexed Qatabān in the second half of the 2nd century CE, reaching its greatest size.

700 B.C. Griffon from the Royal palace at Shabwa the capital city of the kingdom :

Click the image to open in full size.

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Kingdom of Awsan :

The ancient Kingdom of Awsān in South Arabia modern Yemen, with a capital at ajar Yairr in Wādī Markhah, to the south of Wādī Bayān, is now marked by a Tell or artificial mound, which is locally named ''ajar Asfal''. Once it was one of the most important small kingdoms of South Arabia. The city seems to have been destroyed in the 7th century BCE by the king and Mukarrib of Saba' Karab El Watar, according to a Sabaean text that reports the victory in terms that attest to its significance for the Sabaeans.


Statue of Awsanite king :

Click the image to open in full size.

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Kingdom of Qataban :

Qataban or Katabania (Arabic: مملكة قتبان) was an ncient Yemeni kingdom. Its heartland was located in the Baihan valley. Like some other Southern Arabian kingdoms it gained great wealth from the trade of frankincense and myrrh, incenses which were burned at altars. The capital of Qataban was named Timna and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba and Ma'in. The chief deity of the Qatabanians was Amm, or "Uncle" and the people called themselves the "children of Amm".

It was the most prominent Yemeni kingdom in the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BCE, when its ruler held the title of the South Arabian hegemon,MKRB.

Qatabanite lions 75-50 BCE :

Click the image to open in full size.[

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Ma'in kingdom :

The Minaeans, like some other Arabian and Yemenite kingdoms of the same period, were involved in the extremely lucrative spice trade, especially frankincense and myrrh. Inscriptions found in Qanāwu mention a number of major caravan stations along the trading route, including Medina and Gaza; there is also a brief account of how war between the Egyptians and Syrians interrupted the trade for a while.

The Minaeans had a different social structure to the rest of the Old South Arabians. Their king was the only one involved in lawmaking, along with a council of elders, who in Ma'īn represented the priesthood as well as families of high social class. The Minaeans were divided into groups of various sizes, led by a very high official called the ''kabīr'' , appointed once every two years, who was in charge of one or sometimes all of the trading posts.

Baraquish :
It is the oldest Ma’innean city and the first capital of the Kingdom of Ma’in. it was also the most important religious center for the Ma’ineans.

The wall of the city used to have 57 towers with two gates, one in the west and the other in the east. The Sabaeans rebuilt the wall after they had conquered the city 450 BC. Baraquish (ancient name Yathul) was also the latest of the military campaigns led by the Roman leader, Alias Gallous in 24 BC.


Click the image to open in full size.

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Himyar kingdom :

historically referred to as the '''Homerite Kingdom''' by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen. Established in 110 BCE, it took as its capital the ancient city of Zafar, to be followed at the beginning of the 4th century by what is the modern-day city of Sana'a. The kingdom conquered neighbouring Saba' in c. 25 BCE for the first time, Qataban in c. 200 CE, and Hadramaut c. 300 CE. Its political fortunes relative to Saba' changed frequently until it finally conquered the Sabaean Kingdom around 280. Himyar then endured until it finally fell to invaders from the Kingdom of Aksum in 525.


Well i found an interesting video instead of a photo, it shows Himyarite temple with its inside decorations


Last edited by AncientA; January 30th, 2017 at 07:46 AM.
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Old January 30th, 2017, 07:43 AM   #5

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I think Yemen is endangered mostly by its exploding population and the fact that it runs dry. That it's torn by civil war and its general backwardness don't help either.
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