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Old August 26th, 2013, 03:13 AM   #51
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Fasil Ghebbi


Fasil Ghebbi – a complex of castles in Gondar in Ethiopia, which in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries served as the residence of emperors of Ethiopia. The complex was in 1979 a UNESCO world heritage site. Sometimes referred to as “African Camelot.”


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City of Gondar was founded in 1636 and soon became a political and commercial center of Ethiopia. Rich resort began to attract artisans and artists from all over the country. According to the messages, the first castle was designed by architect from India, another had been built by Ethiopians themselves. How to certify a Scottish explorer James Bruce, who was then in Ethiopia, participated in the work of a builder of Greek origin. It is also possible that some effect on the creation of Portuguese castles were Jesuits. Some locks betray aksumską relationship with architecture.


The complex Fasil Ghebbi kładają are castles, palaces, churches and other buildings. The whole is surrounded by a stone wall with a length of 900 meters. The largest building is the palace Fasiladas.


In this town-fortress surrounded by a wall with a length of 900 meters and an area of ​​nearly 70,000 m² located up to 6 locks. Each of them served as the seat of the then ruler, and was built specially for him. This practice stemmed from the prevailing tradition in Ethiopia – just not proper to live in a mansion predecessor. In addition to the castles, the walls are the ruins of three churches and the remains of numerous public and private buildings.


The most famous complex of Fasil Castle is a castle Fasilidasa Ghebbi, built in the seventeenth century. Noteworthy is also the archive bear his name. Aside from the Fasilidasa their residences here have also Yohannes, Iyasu, Dawit, and Mintiwab Bekafa.




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Old October 2nd, 2013, 06:31 PM   #52
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Monumental Architecture


The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay






In Aksum itself impressive structures were built. The great 'palaces' or elite residences of the rich apparently consisted---only foundations now survive---of towered pavilions mounted on high basements (an anti-flood measure?) approached by monumental granite staircases. A 6th century Greek visitor to Aksum mentioned the king's 'four-towered palace'. Such buildings were enclosed by flanking wings of domestic structures, ensuring them both privacy and defence---if that were necessary in a land that was itself a mountain fortress. Inside, there were carved granite pedestals and capitals adorning the columns, brick ovens, underfloor-drainage systems, marble flooring and paneling. We may imagine, almost certainly, carved wooden columns and other decorative work.


The Aksumite kings dedicated granite thrones to their Gods---Astar, Beder, Meder, Mahrem---inscribing them with accounts of military campaigns. Such thrones still stand, broken and desolate, around the city. Statues of gold, silver and bronze were erected to Mahrem, the dynastic god, paralleled with the Greek war-god Mars. One statue-base discovered earlier this century still bore fixing holes and the outline of the feet of a statue, each 99 cm long. All this represents the elite of the Aksumite world.


Archaeology is not all royal monuments, but the perishable nature of humbler dwellings means that often enough little remains to indicate how the ordinary people lived. This is the case at Aksum as elsewhere, but sometimes one can be lucky and find some hints about the lives of lesser people. In one modest tomb on the outskirts of the town of Aksum were found sets of glass stem goblets and beakers, iron tools, weapons and about seventy exquisitely-finished earthenware pots. Even this signifies a certain wealth, but the style of the tomb---little more than a hole dug into the ground---and the contrast between the contents and those from more imposing tombs, hints at very different strata of society.



Text copyright Stuart Munro-Hay 1998




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Engraving of an excavated Aksumite style palace at Lalibela.








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Obelisk at Axum, Ethiopia






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The 17th-18th century church of Mary of Zion, successor to the earliest Christian church in Ethiopia's ancient capital




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Axumite Architecture at Gondar





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Passageway Beneath Tomb Entrance, Axum

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Old October 2nd, 2013, 06:58 PM   #53
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Axum

Here's a recreation of the palace at Dungur
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Axumite Palace

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Here's one of the smaller Aksumite palaces, called Enda Semon:
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Tomb
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Dʿmt

Dʿmt (Proto-Ge'ez: Himjar dal.PNGHimjar ajin.PNGHimjar mim.PNGHimjar ta2.PNG; Unvocalized Ge'ez: ደዐመተ, DʿMT theoretically vocalized as ዳዓማት Daʿamat or ዳዕማት Daʿəmat was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed during the 10th to 5th centuries BC. Few inscriptions by or about this kingdom survive and very little archaeological work has taken place. As a result, it is not known whether Dʿmt ended as a civilization before Aksum's early stages, evolved into the Aksumite state, or was one of the smaller states united in the Aksumite kingdom possibly around the beginning of the 1st century.


The capital of Dʿmt was in present day Yeha, Tigray, Ethiopia,
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Ruins of the temple at Yeha in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.


Yeha

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Old October 2nd, 2013, 07:58 PM   #54

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Great stuff, SonofRa.

I might have a look and see if any of this stuff has been done for Sketchup ... there's a bunch of historical models on there now, castles, ziggurats, pyramids, etc. The 3D aspect really brings the stuff to life.
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Old October 2nd, 2013, 08:41 PM   #55
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(This is an image of more Sudano-Sahelian architecture. This image is from Kong, in Côte d'Ivoire. Kong was the capital of a kingdom of the same name in northern Côte
d'Ivoire.)




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Nigeria


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Khami, Zimbabwe



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Painted Ndebele house SouthAfrica



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King of Kongo receiving Dutch Ambassador 1686


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One of the gateways to Kano city, showing outer wall; Another of the entrances to the city. (1911)


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The gates of Dahomey. (1851)


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Title: Ruins of royal apartments at the palace in Abomey, Benin, ca. 1925-26.



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"Dahomey (modern Benin) - The ruins of royal apartments at the King's Palace
destroyed by cannonballs at Abomey."

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Sybellah: Behanzin, Dahomey


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Jenne (1897)

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House in Jenne. (1897)

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Old October 2nd, 2013, 08:52 PM   #56
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House in Jenne. (1897)


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A street in Jenne. (1897)

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View of Jenne. (1897)

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A corner in Jenne. (1897)

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House in Jenne. (1897)

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A school at Jenne. (1897)


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Jenne: a corner of the town. (1897)


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View of the interior of Jenne and the old mosque. (1897)
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Old October 2nd, 2013, 09:07 PM   #57
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Ruins of Kumbi Saleh, Capital of the Ghana Empire (9th to 14th century)



"The King's Sleeping Room, 1817"
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From Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee: With a Descriptive Account of that Kingdom by Thomas E. Bowditch

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"Part of the Piazza in the Palace, 1817"

Also from Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee: With a Descriptive Account of that Kingdom by Thomas E. Bowditch

Both of these images are drawings of parts of Kumasi, the capital of the former Ashanti Confederacy.



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“Reception of the Mission. By the Sultan of Bornou”

From Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa, in the Years 1822, 1823, and 1824




“Kanó, from Mount Dalá / Febr 10th 1851”
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Publication: 1831-34. Ferrario, Giulio. Aggiunte e Rettificazioni all'Opera. Il Costume Antico e Moderno di Tutti i Popoli. Cogli Analoghi Disegni del Dottore Giulio Ferrario, Vol. II.
Caption translation: The Queen's Palace.
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Text translation: “The population of Tandi a Vua may be estimated at 15,000 individuals, of whom two-thirds are women. The homes of the nobles are elegant and vast. The exterior walls of the Queen’s Palace are covered by a sort of moss which preserves them from the humidity of the rainy seasons, while their interior attics are ceiled with smooth posts set one against the other so as to appear as a single board: the reception room is vast and lit up by four windows whose squares are glazed with sheets of transparent mica. Five hundred Negroes constantly surround this palace: the beautifully sculpted main door is guarded by only three men, two are seated on their heels, one on one side and the other on the other side, are armed with a club, and the third is fully armed (see Table 44).” (p. 402).





“View of the City of Timbuctoo” [This is the first view of Timbuktu drawn by a European visitor.]
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“Sketch of the Plan of the Great Mosque of Timbuctoo, and View Taken from the E.N.E.”

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"I visited the great mosque on the west side of the town; it is larger than that on the east, but it is built in the same style. The walls are in bad repair, their facing being damaged by the rains, which fall in the months of August and September, and which are always brought on by easterly winds, accompanied by violent storms. Several buttresses are raised against the wall to support them; I ascended the tower, though its staircase, which is internal, is almost demolished. . . . The western quarter of the mosque seems very ancient, but the whole facade on that side is in ruins. There are also some vaulted arcades, from which the whole of the plaster facing is detached. This mosque is constructed of sun-dried bricks, of nearly the same form as those made in Europe. The walls are rough-cast with a kind of coarse sand, similar to that of which the bricks are made, mixed with the gluten of rice. . . . The eastern part is composed of six galleries. . . . The walls of the mosque are fifteen feet high and twenty-five or twenty-six inches thick." - René Caillié (1799-1838), Travels Through Central Africa to Timbuctoo, and Across the Great Desert, to Morocco, Performed in the Years 1824-1828, Vol. 2, pp. 71-72. London, 1830.


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Publication: 1908. Powell-Cotton, Major P.H.G. "A Journey Through the Eastern Portion of the Congo State." The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. XIX, No. 3.
Caption translation: Wall of burnt clay surrounding a village near Timbuktu, Africa.

“1, 2, 3: Details of the Great Mosque of Timbuctoo; 4, 5: Plan and Front of the House of Sidi Abdallah Chebir, in Which Mr. Caillié Resided”


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Publication: 1892. Binger, Louis. Du Niger au Golfe de Guinée par les pays de Kong et le Mossi. vol. I, Vol. I of II.

View of Bassa

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Old October 2nd, 2013, 09:13 PM   #58
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Caption translation: Entrance hall in the chief's court of Bamum


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Caption translation: The Bamum chief in his audience court. Inside a round hall, with richly carved bars, Njoja sits. He is smoking a pipe, and youths and all of his attendants surround him. The throne is of estimable, old beadwork.


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Caption translation: Attending court in the chief's palace in Fumban



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Publication: 1917. Wuhrmann, Anna. Vier Jahre im Grasland von Kamerun.
Entrance to the chief's compound



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Publication: 1874. Skertchly, J.A. Dahomey as it is; Being A Narrative of Eight Month's Residence in that Country with a full account of the notorious annual customs, and the social and religious institutions of the Ffons. Also an appendix on Ashantee, and a Glossary of Dahoman Words and Titles.

The Gun Custom


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Publication: 1874. Skertchly, J.A. Dahomey as it is; Being A Narrative of Eight Month's Residence in that Country with a full account of the notorious annual customs, and the social and religious institutions of the Ffons. Also an appendix on Ashantee, and a Glossary of Dahoman Words and Titles.
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Old October 2nd, 2013, 09:53 PM   #59
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Nubia-middle ages.


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Church Ruin pic from the book

City -old dongola
Old Dongola | Capital of mediæval Nubia, Makuria Kingdom

Wikipedia: Old Dongola (Old Nubian: Tungul; Arabic: Dunqulah al-ʿAjūz‎) is a town in Sudan, on the east bank of the Nile opposite the Wadi Al-Malik. It is 50 miles (80 km) upstream from (New) Dongola. Old Dongola was the departure point for caravans west to Darfur and Kordofan.

It was an important city in Mediaeval Nubia. From the fourth to the fourteenth century it was the capital of the Makurian state. In the Fifth Century Old Dongola was founded as fortress, but became soon a town. Latest with the arrival of Christianity it became the capital. Several churches were built. There was the Building X and the Church with the Stone Pavement. There were erected about 100 m apart from the walled town centre, indicating that at this time the town already extended over the original walls of the fortress. In the middile of the Seventh century, the town was attacked by the Arabs, but was not conquered. However, the two main churches were destroyed, but shortly after rebuild. Building material of the Old Church was used for supporting the city walls.

The Building X was soon replaced by the Old Church.

The Church of the Granite Columns was erected at the end of the Seventh Century over the Old Church. It was perhaps the cathedral of Old Dongola and adorned with 16 granite columns. These columns had richly decorated granite capitals.

Around the Tenth century, Old Dongola had its heyday. At the place of the Church of the Stone Pavements, the Cruciform Church was erected. At this time Old Dongola had many other churches, at least two palaces, and in the North a huge monastery. Several houses were well equipped and had bath rooms and wall paintings.

In the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century, the town lost importance. It was attacked by Arabs several times and the throne room of the palace was converted to a mosque.

Under the Funj, Old Dongola was the capital of the Northern provinces.

When the traveller C.J. Poncet travelled through the city, he described it as located on the slope of a sandy hill. His description of Old Dongola continues:

The houses are ill built, and the streets half deserted and fill'd with heaps of sand, occasion'd by floods from the mountains.

The castle is in the very center of the town. It is large and spacious, but the fortifications are inconsiderable. It keeps in awe the Arabians, who are masters of the open country

A Polish archaeological team has been excavating the town since 1964.


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Many cemeteries in Sudan are characterized by the presence of some large conical-shaped tombs. They are called 'Qubba' and are used as a funerary monument for leading Muslim religious figures. © Maurizio Levi - See the Sudan (english) map with a
complete picture set.


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Old Dongola, Sudan - Monastery
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Old October 2nd, 2013, 10:04 PM   #60
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Qasr Ibrim
Nubia

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