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Old November 4th, 2012, 02:17 PM   #251

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Was Henry Vlll's first wife anorexic? Catherine of Aragon's secret problem | Mail Online
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Fertility problems throughout her marriage meant that Catherine of Aragon never fulfilled her most important obligation – to produce a male heir. Could this have been a result of her ‘disordered eating’? Historian Giles Tremlett investigates
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Catherine in 1530, as Queen of England
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Old November 6th, 2012, 04:30 AM   #252

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I'm reading his book on Catherine now. Good book. He also postulates that her poor eating and sometimes refusal to eat was based on her desire to get attention.

Catherine of Aragon: The Spanish Queen of Henry VIII: Giles Tremlett: 9780802779168: Amazon.com: Books
Catherine of Aragon: The Spanish Queen of Henry VIII: Giles Tremlett: 9780802779168: Amazon.com: Books

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Old November 6th, 2012, 07:05 AM   #253

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I'm reading his book on Catherine now. Good book. He also postulates that her poor eating and sometimes refusal to eat was based on her desire to get attention.

Catherine of Aragon: The Spanish Queen of Henry VIII: Giles Tremlett: 9780802779168: Amazon.com: Books
There tends to be a lot of that associated with anorexia. I dated a girl with anorexia for three years, and her problem stemmed more from middle-child syndrome, rather than the aspect of having something to control, ie: their bodies.
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Old November 6th, 2012, 07:07 AM   #254

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Acclamation Voting in Sparta: An Early Use of Approval Voting
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An early form of approval voting was arguably used in Ancient Greece, as is described in Plutarch’s account of the elections to the Gerousia, Sparta’s Council of Elders.
In his Life of Illustrious Men, Plutarch credits the legendary lawgiver Lycurgus with having fixed the rules for electing the Spartan Council’s members, the Gerontes. The office of Elder was seen as a reward for virtue and as a high honor, since the Gerontes were elected for life and the Gerousia was a powerful institution – it pre- pared legislation for approval by the Assembly and acted as a high court in serious cases such as those of homicide. Plutarch recounts that, after having filled the Council with men chosen among his followers, Lycurgus ordered that the future vacancies “be supplied out of the best and most deserving men past sixty years old”:
We need not wonder if there was much striving for it; for what more glorious competition could there be amongst men, than one in which it was not contested who was swiftest among the swift or strongest of the strong, but who of many wise and good was wisest and best, and fittest to be entrusted for ever after, as the reward of his merits, with the supreme authority of the commonwealth, and with power over the lives, franchises, and highest interests of all his countrymen?

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Old November 6th, 2012, 08:17 AM   #255

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...Acclamation Voting in Sparta: An Early Use of Approval Voting
I recall reading somewhere years ago that all votes in America were taken orally for quite a long time after the Constitution was approved, and in some locations well into the 19th century.
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Old November 6th, 2012, 09:54 AM   #256

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I have never heard of that before.
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Old November 6th, 2012, 10:11 AM   #257

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I have never heard of that before.
I did a bit of searching to find some reference to it, and came up with two examples.

This one:
Voting in Early America : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site

"Others, like Virginia, relied on public voice votes, an English tradition. Voice voting made ballot counts harder to rig and, cast in the presence of friends, neighbors, local officials, and candidates, left no doubt about a voter's intention. In Virginia, voice voting was a spectator event, every voter occupying center stage for a few moments. In his book Gentlemen Freeholders: Political Practices in Washington's Virginia, Charles S. Sydnor wrote:

As each freeholder came before the sheriff, his name was called out in a loud voice, and the sheriff inquired how he would vote. The freeholder replied by giving the name of his preference. The appropriate clerk then wrote down the voter's name, the sheriff announced it as enrolled, and often the candidate for whom he had voted arose, bowed, and publicly thanked him."

And one which referenced a painting by George Caleb Bingham depicting the day of voice voting in Missouri:

George Caleb Bingham
American, 18111879

"The County Election"

oil on canvas

38 x 52 in. (96.5 x 132.1 cm)
framed: 49 1/4 x 63 3/16 in. (125.1 x 160.5 cm)

Gift of Bank of America

"This painting depicts a large crowd gathered on election day to orally cast their votes. It comprises the central painting of George Caleb Bingham's Election Series, which illustrates various stages of the American political system. A successful politician himself, Bingham used his personal experience to describe the democratic processes of the mid-19th century. Within this crowded scene, Bingham conveys the diversity of the populace in great detail, including a drunken citizen being carried to the polling place."
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Anyhow, I don't now know how many States did this, but some or several did.
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Old November 7th, 2012, 10:25 AM   #258

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Complex Tool Find Argues for Early Human Smarts : Discovery News
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Rocks carved into ancient stone arrowheads or into lethal tools for hurling spears suggest humans innovated relatively advanced weapons much earlier than thought, researchers in South Africa say.
The researchers' finds, partially exposed by a coastal storm, suggest ancient peoples were capable of complex forms of thinking, scientists added.
"These people were like you and I," researcher Curtis Marean, a paleoanthropologist at Arizona State University in Tempe, told LiveScience.
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Rocks carved into ancient stone arrowheads or into lethal tools for hurling spears suggest humans innovated relatively advanced weapons much earlier than thought, researchers in South Africa say.
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Old November 7th, 2012, 10:28 AM   #259

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New "Sauron" Dinosaur Found, Was Big as T. Rex

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Named after the demonic Eye of Sauron from the Lord of the Rings films, a new species of flesh-ripping dinosaur terrorized North Africa some 95 million years ago, a new study says.
The species—Sauroniops pachytholus, or "eye of Sauron" in Greek—was identified from a single fossil unearthed in southeastern Morocco in 2007.

That fossil included only part the upper skull—including the eye socket, study leader Andrea Cau, of the Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini in Bologna, Italy, said by email.
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In an artist's rendering, Sauroniops feeds on a young Spinosaurus while other Spinosaurus run nearby.
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Old November 7th, 2012, 02:53 PM   #260

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At "Europe's Oldest Town," Unusual Fortifications Hint at Prehistoric Riches
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It's controversially being called Europe's oldest known town. But whatever Solnitsata's place in history, it's becoming clear that the 6,500-year-old Bulgarian sitenot far from the continent's earliest known gold hordehad something very much worth protecting.
Researchers announced last week they'd discovered 10-foot-tall (3-meter-tall), 6-foot-thick (1.8-meter-thick) stone walls around the settlement. The find is among the evidence for Solnitsata's oldest-town status—and further proof of an advanced Copper Age Balkan trade network, according to dig leader Vasil Nikolov, a Bulgarian archaeologist.
Long before the first wheel rolled through Europe, precious goods were likely crisscrossing the Balkans on pack animals and possibly in carts with sledlike bottoms. Salt, essential for preserving meats, joined gold and copper among the most prized cargo. And with its rare and coveted brine springs, Solnitsata, near present-day Provadiya, was a key producer, boiling off the salt and baking it into ready-to-trade blocks to supply its region with the essential mineral.
Salt wealth might explain those heavy-duty walls, which archaeologist David Anthony called "quite unusual."
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In a Bulgarian mound, archaeologists have found perhaps Europe's earliest massive fortifications.
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