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Natural Environment How Human History has been impacted by the environment, science, nature, geography, weather, and natural phenomena


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Old November 10th, 2016, 08:23 PM   #1001

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Post-eruptive flooding of Santorini caldera and implications for tsunami generation : Nature Communications
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Caldera-forming eruptions of island volcanoes generate tsunamis by the interaction of different eruptive phenomena with the sea. Such tsunamis are a major hazard, but forward models of their impacts are limited by poor understanding of source mechanisms. The caldera-forming eruption of Santorini in the Late Bronze Age is known to have been tsunamigenic, and caldera collapse has been proposed as a mechanism. Here, we present bathymetric and seismic evidence showing that the caldera was not open to the sea during the main phase of the eruption, but was flooded once the eruption had finished. Inflow of water and associated landsliding cut a deep, 2.0–2.5 km3, submarine channel, thus filling the caldera in less than a couple of days. If, as at most such volcanoes, caldera collapse occurred syn-eruptively, then it cannot have generated tsunamis. Entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea, combined with slumping of submarine pyroclastic accumulations, were the main mechanisms of tsunami production.
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Old November 11th, 2016, 09:39 AM   #1002

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Archaeology in Europe News: 11/01/2016 - 12/01/2016
The first humans to arrive at Greenland feasted on bowhead whales in order to survive, scientists believe. Through DNA analysis, researchers have reconstructed the diets of the first settlers, finding large marine mammals were a bigger part of their diet than previously believed.

How paleo-Eskimo cultures successfully migrated to Greenland is not entirely known. They first arrived around 4,500 years ago and there were several waves of settlement. However, most of our understanding of the culture is based on fossils analysed using traditional techniques. Because of this mostly consists of bones, a skewed picture of their diet emerges.

In a study published in Nature Communications, scientists from the University of Copenhagen looked at the DNA extracted from sediments that dated back to 2000BCE. Samples came from four well-described midden deposits and allowed the team to distinguish organic tissue, including fat, skin and microfossils. From this they could work out which species it belonged to.
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Old November 11th, 2016, 09:44 AM   #1003

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Burial Site of Siberian Archer with Intricate Arrows Unearthed in Altai Republic | Ancient Origins
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Medieval archer's 'unique quiver' and arrows with iron tips found in hole in a cliff, along with his wooden sarcophagus.
Two local residents accidentally stumbled across the burial site, close to the village of Kokorya, which contains the bones of an adult man, his birch bark quiver, arrow shafts and iron arrow heads, intricate ornaments and utensils made from the roots of trees, as well as the remnants of silk ribbons.
He is believed to be a warrior with a talent for archery who lived around the 13th to 15th century
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Old November 13th, 2016, 06:11 PM   #1004

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During the ninth archaeological field season, which started in September, the joint Spanish-Egyptian mission at the Temple of Millions of Years of Thutmose III, at Al-Deir Al-Bahari on Luxor's west bank, stumbled upon the tomb of the servant of the king’s house, Amenrenef.
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The tomb can thus be dated to the “Third Intermediate Period” (1070-712 BC).

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...3TYvkDTmh85.97
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Old November 13th, 2016, 06:13 PM   #1005

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https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...ll1ZhAPutfZ.97

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The Curtain Theatre [Credit: (c) MOLA]

After further careful excavation, it has now been confirmed that the rectangular theatre was purpose built for performance and entertainment, and housed a long, rectangular stage with evidence of an unusual passageway running beneath it.

The early stages of the dig confirmed that the theatre was not the polygonal structure we had anticipated, but this latest set of discoveries give us more detail about this early Elizabethan theatre.
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Old November 14th, 2016, 10:42 AM   #1006

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https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...k7DLbTbRORe.97 During the last campaign at the site of Barranco León in Orce, Granada the research team found remains of stone carving along with cutting and fracturing marks on the bones of animals that lived in the area.
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Old November 14th, 2016, 10:49 PM   #1007

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Extant dog and wolf DNA indicates that dog domestication was accompanied by the selection of a series of duplications on the Amy2B gene coding for pancreatic amylase. In this study, we used a palaeogenetic approach to investigate the timing and expansion of the Amy2B gene in the ancient dog populations of Western and Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the copy numbers of this gene for 13 ancient dog samples, dated to between 15 000 and 4000 years before present (cal. BP). This evidenced an increase of Amy2B copies in ancient dogs from as early as the 7th millennium cal. BP in Southeastern Europe. We found that the gene expansion was not fixed across all dogs within this early farming context, with ancient dogs bearing between 2 and 20 diploid copies of the gene. The results also suggested that selection for the increased Amy2B copy number started 7000 years cal. BP, at the latest. This expansion reflects a local adaptation that allowed dogs to thrive on a starch rich diet, especially within early farming societies, and suggests a biocultural coevolution of dog genes and human culture.
Amy2B copy number variation reveals starch diet adaptations in ancient European dogs | Open Science
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Old November 15th, 2016, 07:27 AM   #1008

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Widespread evidence of prehistoric dairying discovered along the Mediterranean coast An inter-disciplinary team of scientists and archaeologists have discovered widespread evidence of prehistoric milk production in southern Europe. The study uncovered evidence that humans have been utilising milk and dairy products across the northern Mediterranean region from the onset of agriculture – some 9,000 years ago.
This study combined evidence of the presence of milk and carcass fats in more than 500 pottery vessels together with an examination of the ages at death of domesticated animals excavated from 82 sites dating from the 7th to 5th millennia BC.
The findings show varying intensities of dairying and non-dairying activities in the northern Mediterranean region, with the slaughter profiles of the animals mirroring the fats detected in cooking pots.

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Old November 15th, 2016, 08:23 AM   #1009
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Originally Posted by Lowell2 View Post
https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...ll1ZhAPutfZ.97

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The Curtain Theatre [Credit: (c) MOLA]

After further careful excavation, it has now been confirmed that the rectangular theatre was purpose built for performance and entertainment, and housed a long, rectangular stage with evidence of an unusual passageway running beneath it.

The early stages of the dig confirmed that the theatre was not the polygonal structure we had anticipated, but this latest set of discoveries give us more detail about this early Elizabethan theatre.
Is that plumbing in the foreground of the picture?
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Old November 16th, 2016, 11:02 AM   #1010

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Is that plumbing in the foreground of the picture?
looks like a clay or tile pipe, which would indicate some degree of age, -
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