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Natural Environment How Human History has been impacted by the environment, science, nature, geography, weather, and natural phenomena


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Old December 3rd, 2017, 01:10 PM   #1441

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and for the other camels --The domestication of the Arabian and Bactrian camels
happened more or less synchronously at the turn of the III millennium BC: 5000 years after the bull, 2000 after the donkey. It occurred in the original camel’s habitats, among
pastoralist tribes at the arid borders of the earliest civilizations: for the dromedary in the coastal areas of the Arabian peninsula, for the Bactrian in SW-Central Asia. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article.../4/26_205/_pdf Camels, Llamas, and Relatives - Camelidae - Details - Encyclopedia of Life
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Old December 6th, 2017, 10:22 AM   #1442

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USS Ward, ship that fired first American shots of World War II, found in Philippines | Fox News
Click the image to open in full size. One of the guns on board the sunken USS Ward. (Photo courtesy of Paul G. Allen ) A team manning a deep sea research vessel says it has found and captured the first underwater images of a sunken U.S. Navy ship credited with firing America’s opening shots of World War II.

The USS Ward was located in the waters near Ponson Island in the Philippines, an expedition crew led by Microsoft co-founder and philanthropist Paul Allen announced, just before the anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor. “This is going to be the first time the Ward has been seen in 73 years since she was sank,” Robert Kraft, director of subsea operations for the research vessel Petrel, said as an underwater drone inspected the ship on Dec. 1. “We got some wreckage just coming into view.”

Images coming from the drone showed the ship’s remains heavily overtaken by marine life, giving the scraps varying shades of bluish-green color. The ship will be left alone -- untouched -- at its current location

On Dec. 7, 1941, the Wickes-class destroyer sank a Japanese midget submarine in Pearl Harbor around an hour before the infamous attack began. The crew of the Ward was alerted of the vessel’s presence by the cargo ship USS Antares, which said it had a “suspicious object” following it into the harbor.
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Old December 6th, 2017, 10:29 AM   #1443

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A group of archaeologists from the University of Granada has discovered and analysed a necropolis found in the Sierra Arana de Darro (Granada). This megalithic funerary space, between 5000 and 6000 years old, was in use for more than a millennium, making it the most long-lived in Granada and among the most enduring in Europe.
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https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...pQirbUpmCC1.97 The study of the 19 dates has led to the conclusion that the first burials in this necropolis took place between 3525-3195 BC, while the last burials date from 2125-1980 BC. Therefore, Panorķa was in use for more than a millennium, between 1055-1410 years, according to the statistical analysis. This fact places Panorķa as the longest-lasting ritual and funerary space in Granada and among the most surviving sacred places in Europe.
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Old December 7th, 2017, 08:09 AM   #1444

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeLWNadsQpE
Pearl Harbor bombed - Dec 07, 1941 - HISTORY.com At 7:55 a.m. Hawaii time, a Japanese dive bomber bearing the red symbol of the Rising Sun of Japan on its wings appears out of the clouds above the island of Oahu. A swarm of 360 Japanese warplanes followed, descending on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in a ferocious assault. The surprise attack struck a critical blow against the U.S. Pacific fleet and drew the United States irrevocably into World War II.
he day after Pearl Harbor was bombed, President Roosevelt appeared before a joint session of Congress and declared, “Yesterday, December 7, 1941–a date which will live in infamy–the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.” After a brief and forceful speech, he asked Congress to approve a resolution recognizing the state of war between the United States and Japan. The Senate voted for war against Japan by 82 to 0, and the House of Representatives approved the resolution by a vote of 388 to 1. The sole dissenter was Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana, a devout pacifist who had also cast a dissenting vote against the U.S. entrance into World War I. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war against the United States, and the U.S. government responded in kind.

USS Shaw
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japanese midget sub
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Old December 7th, 2017, 07:25 PM   #1445

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A new study comparing the bones of Central European women that lived during the first 6,000 years of farming with those of modern athletes has shown that the average prehistoric agricultural woman had stronger upper arms than living female rowing champions. Researchers from the University of Cambridge's Department of Archaeology say this physical prowess was likely obtained through tilling soil and harvesting crops by hand, as well as the grinding of grain for as much as five hours a day to make flour.

Until now, bioarchaeological investigations of past behaviour have interpreted women's bones solely through direct comparison to those of men. However, male bones respond to strain in a more visibly dramatic way than female bones.
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Prehistoric women?s manual labor exceeded that of athletes through the first 5500 years of farming in Central Europe | Science Advances Prehistoric women’s manual labor exceeded that of athletes through the first 5500 years of farming in Central Europe
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Old December 14th, 2017, 11:07 AM   #1446

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https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...-visigoth.html
Click the image to open in full size. A Roman perfume shop and an ancient Visigoth burial site have been uncovered in Spain. The skeleton of a woman from a nomadic Gothic tribe was also discovered by archaeologists, which could be an isolated burial or part of a wider grave system.
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Old December 14th, 2017, 11:21 AM   #1447

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https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1214101215.htm CT scans of Egyptian mummies reveal oldest known cases of breast cancer and multiple myeloma
An international team has discovered the world’s oldest known cases of breast cancer and multiple myeloma (a type of bone marrow cancer). The discoveries were made by conducting CT scans of two mummies found in the pharaonic necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa in Aswan, Egypt. the woman with breast cancer died around 2000 B.C., while the man with multiple myeloma died around 1800 B.C. Both individuals belonged to the ruling classes (or at least to the wealthy classes) of the governing Egyptian families of Elephantine.
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Old December 29th, 2017, 08:21 AM   #1448

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well, haven't been on this daily these last few months, and regrettably, not likely to do so until after middle of next year. I do invite others to chip in and post.

Experimental design of the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram The aesthetic appearance of metals has long been recognised in archaeometric studies as an important factor driving inventions and innovations in the evolution of metal production. Nevertheless, while studies of ancient gold metallurgy are well supported by modern research in colour characteristics of gold alloys, the colour properties of major prehistoric copper alloys, such as arsenical copper and tin bronzes, remain either largely understudied or not easily accessible to the western scholarship. A few published studies have already indicated that alloying and heat treatment change the colours of copper alloys, although they are mainly based on examples of prehistoric tin bronze objects and experimental casts. Here we present a procedure for building the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram, starting with experimental casting of 64 binary and ternary alloys in this system. We used two types of information to produce two different ternary colour diagrams: one based on photographs of the samples, and the other based on the colorimetric measurements. Furthermore, we developed a procedure for creating a graphic representation of colours in the Cu-As-Sn ternary diagram using QGIS. As an initial case study, we plotted the composition of the world's earliest tin bronze artefacts; the graphic representation further supports claims about the importance of a golden hue for their invention and demand, c. 6500 years ago. We argue that the presented colour diagrams will find wide use in future investigations of aesthetics of prehistoric copper alloys.

Click the image to open in full size. Above are 64 metal samples of using variable copper-tin-arsenic compositions created to use in the study.
Credit: M. Radivojevic
https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1222090349.htm
"The copper-tin-arsenic ternary colour charts enabled us to re-evaluate the claim that early tin bronzes in the Balkans had a distinctive golden hue," said Radivojevic. She added that it is "now highly likely that the production of this new alloy in the Balkans at the same time as gold could have been dictated by the demand for the 'exotic' golden hue, or its closest imitation."
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Old December 31st, 2017, 09:37 AM   #1449

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https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...BlzF2TZxrV3.97 Oman was home to a civilisation almost 4,000 years old and had contacts with parts of present day Pakistan epresentatives of the Sultan Qaboos University’s (SQU’s) media cell said that the cultural contacts with the present day Sindh province in Pakistan had been confirmed because ancient pottery from the South Asian region had been recovered from one of the settlements.
The site dates back to the civilisation of Umm Al Nar, a bronze age civilisation, which dates from 2500 to 2000 BC. This archaeological site is the oldest settlement to date discovered in the north of the Batinah plain. What sets the site apart is its relationship with the Harappan or Indus Valley civilisation, which mostly covered parts of present day Pakistan and north and northwest India.
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“There are initial indications of its external relations with Sindh, in which the pottery or the storage jar, which was manufactured in the civilisation of Harappa, then in Sindh,” a statement from the university read.

It is believed that the place of manufacture of the pottery found in Dahwa is located in the central region of the Sindh valley in Pakistan, specifically the Mohenjodaro region, where archaeologists found the largest city in the world dating back to the early Bronze Age (2500-2000 BC).
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Old January 4th, 2018, 12:22 PM   #1450

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https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25173 Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans Despite broad agreement that the Americas were initially populated via Beringia, the land bridge that connected far northeast Asia with northwestern North America during the Pleistocene epoch, when and how the peopling of the Americas occurred remains unresolved1,2,3,4,5. Analyses of human remains from Late Pleistocene Alaska are important to resolving the timing and dispersal of these populations. The remains of two infants were recovered at Upward Sun River (USR), and have been dated to around 11.5 thousand years ago (ka)6. Here, by sequencing the USR1 genome to an average coverage of approximately 17 times, we show that USR1 is most closely related to Native Americans, but falls basal to all previously sequenced contemporary and ancient Native Americans1,7,8. As such, USR1 represents a distinct Ancient Beringian population. Using demographic modelling, we infer that the Ancient Beringian population and ancestors of other Native Americans descended from a single founding population that initially split from East Asians around 36 ± 1.5 ka, with gene flow persisting until around 25 ± 1.1 ka. Gene flow from ancient north Eurasians into all Native Americans took place 25–20 ka, with Ancient Beringians branching off around 22–18.1 ka. Our findings support a long-term genetic structure in ancestral Native Americans, consistent with the Beringian ‘standstill model’9. We show that the basal northern and southern Native American branches, to which all other Native Americans belong, diverged around 17.5–14.6 ka, and that this probably occurred south of the North American ice sheets. We also show that after 11.5 ka, some of the northern Native American populations received gene flow from a Siberian population most closely related to Koryaks, but not Palaeo-Eskimos1, Inuits or Kets10, and that Native American gene flow into Inuits was through northern and not southern Native American groups1. Our findings further suggest that the far-northern North American presence of northern Native Americans is from a back migration that replaced or absorbed the initial founding population of Ancient Beringians.
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