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Natural Environment How Human History has been impacted by the environment, science, nature, geography, weather, and natural phenomena


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Old April 8th, 2015, 07:54 PM   #31

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Man in lonely shallow grave buried by community who thought jaw deformities indicated evil, say archaeologists | Culture24
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Lower jaw deformities from birth, a missing right hand and foot bones, trepanning to exorcise “bad spirits” and a lonely burial were the lot of a middle-aged Saxon or early medieval man found face down in a shallow grave, say archaeologists investigating skeletons found at a Hampshire Roman villa during the 1960s.
The latter of two male discoveries at Rockbourne, near the town of Fordingbridge on the River Avon, was originally found in 1965.

Analysts believe the community would have buried him in a lonely place and weighed him down with stones after viewing a deformity on the left hand side of his jaw as a sign of his troubles and a potentially evil influence.

“His skull had some interesting pathology,” says Dave Allen, of the Hampshire Cultural Trust, discussing a man who died between 35 and 45 years of age, standing 5ft 7 inches tall.
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Old April 8th, 2015, 07:59 PM   #32

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Two ancient human fossils from Laos reveal early human diversity
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An ancient human skull and a jawbone found a few meters away in a cave in northern Laos add to the evidence that early modern humans were physically quite diverse, researchers report in PLOS ONE.
The skull, found in 2009 in a cave known as Tam Pa Ling in the Annamite Mountains of present-day Laos, and reported in 2012 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is the oldest modern human fossil found in Southeast Asia. Its discovery pushed back the date of modern human migration through the region by as much as 20,000 years. It revealed that early humans who migrated to the islands and coasts of Southeast Asia after migrating out of Africa also traveled inland much earlier than previously thought, some 46,000 to 63,000 years ago.
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Old April 8th, 2015, 08:03 PM   #33

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Tombs Filled with Dozens of Mummies Discovered in Peru
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Dozens of tombs filled with up to 40 mummies each have been discovered around a 1,200-year-old ceremonial site in Peru's Cotahuasi Valley.

So far, the archaeologists have excavated seven tombs containing at least 171 mummies from the site, now called Tenahaha.

The tombs are located on small hills surrounding the site. "The dead, likely numbering in the low thousands, towered over the living," wrote archaeologist Justin Jennings, a curator at Toronto's Royal Ontario Museum, in a chapter of the newly published book "Tenahaha and the Wari State: A View of the Middle Horizon from the Cotahuasi Valley" (University of Alabama Press, 2015).

Before rigor mortis set in, the mummies had their knees put up to the level of their shoulders and their arms folded along their chest, the researchers found. The corpses were then bound with rope and wrapped in layers of textiles. The mummies range in age from neonate fetuses to older adults, with some of the youngest mummies (such as infants) being buried in jars. While alive the people appear to have lived in villages close to Tenahaha.
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A burial of a young woman found in the middle of a tomb in Peru's Cotahuasi Valley, where dozens of mummy-filled tombs were discovered.
Credit: Matthew Edwards
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Old April 8th, 2015, 08:04 PM   #34

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Tombs Filled with Dozens of Mummies Discovered in Peru
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Dozens of tombs filled with up to 40 mummies each have been discovered around a 1,200-year-old ceremonial site in Peru's Cotahuasi Valley.

So far, the archaeologists have excavated seven tombs containing at least 171 mummies from the site, now called Tenahaha.

The tombs are located on small hills surrounding the site. "The dead, likely numbering in the low thousands, towered over the living," wrote archaeologist Justin Jennings, a curator at Toronto's Royal Ontario Museum, in a chapter of the newly published book "Tenahaha and the Wari State: A View of the Middle Horizon from the Cotahuasi Valley" (University of Alabama Press, 2015).

Before rigor mortis set in, the mummies had their knees put up to the level of their shoulders and their arms folded along their chest, the researchers found. The corpses were then bound with rope and wrapped in layers of textiles. The mummies range in age from neonate fetuses to older adults, with some of the youngest mummies (such as infants) being buried in jars. While alive the people appear to have lived in villages close to Tenahaha.
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A burial of a young woman found in the middle of a tomb in Peru's Cotahuasi Valley, where dozens of mummy-filled tombs were discovered.
Credit: Matthew Edwards
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Old April 10th, 2015, 02:58 PM   #35

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one of the reasons the COSO area petroglyphs remain unvandalized is because they are mostly inside the perimeter of a patrolled and closed Navy base.
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[ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coso_Rock_Art_District]Coso Rock Art District - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]
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Fortunately for the petroglyphs, most of the Coso Range is on the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, where visitation is restricted, vandalism is low, and preservation is most likely.
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Old April 10th, 2015, 03:09 PM   #36

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and yet they note
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“discussing a man who died between 35 and 45 years of age, standing 5ft 7 inches tall.,
and during the immediate post Roman period -- clearly if his deformities existed at birth, he wasn't killed for them -- having lived to full adulthood. Trepanning at that time would have been difficult and probably expensive and since healing seems to have started, wasn't the immediate cause of death
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“He survived the operation and the bone had healed.”
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Old April 10th, 2015, 03:12 PM   #37

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Northern Europeans in the Neolithic period initially rejected the practice of farming, which was otherwise spreading throughout the continent, a team of researchers has found. Their findings offer a new wrinkle in the history of a major economic revolution that moved civilizations away from foraging and hunting as a means for survival.
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In the PLOS ONE study, the researchers traced the adoption of ornaments linked to farming populations in order to elucidate the patterns of transition from foraging and hunting to farming. Their results show the spread of ornaments linked to farmers -- human-shaped beads and bracelets composed of perforated shells -- stretching from eastern Greece and the Black Sea shore to France's Brittany region and from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Spain. By contrast, the researchers did not find these types of ornaments in the Baltic region of northern Europe.
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Old April 11th, 2015, 05:50 AM   #38

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Ghostly Faces and Invisible Verse Found in Medieval Text Ghostly Faces and Invisible Verse Found in Medieval Text. Ghostly faces and lines of verse previously invisible to the naked eye have been uncovered in the oldest surviving medieval manuscript written entirely in Welsh.

"The Black Book of Carmarthen," dating to 1250, contains texts from the ninth through 12th centuries, including some of the earliest references to Arthur and Merlin. "The margins of manuscripts often contain medieval and early modern reactions to the text, and these can cast light on what our ancestors thought about what they were reading," Williams explained. "The 'Black Book' was particularly heavily annotated before the end of the 16th century." Williams and Russell said they think a man named Jaspar Gryffyth, a 16th-century owner of the book who copied his name in Hebrew onto the book, likely erased such "reactions."
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Old April 12th, 2015, 12:23 PM   #39

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The Archaeology News Network: Possible human sacrifice found in ancient Korean tomb Possible human sacrifice found in ancient Korean tomb Burying the dead with a human sacrifice was a common custom in ancient Korea. But in a peculiar case, Korean archaeologists have uncovered a 5th- to 6th-century tomb from Korea’s Silla Dynasty (57 B.C. to A.D. 935) in which a young woman and man are buried together - lying next to each other - raising the possibility that it represents an image of two people making love. Experts are fairly sure that the tomb was meant for the woman after her death. The man may have been killed to be buried with her.
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Old April 13th, 2015, 05:32 AM   #40

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Battered Remains of Medieval Knight Discovered in UK Cathedral
From 2009 to 2011, his team respectfully removed the human remains. But one stood out — a 5-foot-8-inch (1.7 meters) man with serious trauma on his right shoulder blade, 10 of his right ribs and left leg.

"He's the most battered corpse on the site," Boucher said. "He had the largest number of broken bones."

The man was about 45 years or older when he died, according to a bone analysis. He was buried in a stone-lined grave, a type of grave that was used between the 12th and 14th centuries, the researchers said.

Four of the man's ribs showed healed fractures that may have occurred simultaneously, suggesting a single instance of trauma, researchers wrote in the pathology report. Another four ribs were in the process of healing, indicating that the man was still recovering from the injuries when he died. The other two damaged ribs also show evidence of trauma, and his left lower leg has an unusual twisting break, one that could have been caused by a direct blow or a rolled ankle, according to the report.

In addition, the man had lost three of his teeth during his lifetime.
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