Originally Posted by Labienus
For rome, the Pax Romana
The name "Pax Romana" - "Roman Peace" is very decieving, because almost entirely throughout it wars were being fought, whether they be against the Parthians, the Germans, the Britons, the Dacians, or someone else.
The temple in Rome to Janus - the two faced god after whom the month of January is named - had two doors which were always left open, or rather almost always. The doors could only be closed when Rome was not at war with any country, anywhere. It says something about the Romans that when Augustus was able to have the doors closed near the begining of his reign, signifying that Rome was at peace with the world, it was only the 4th time in Roman history that this had been done, and it was not long at all before the doors soon had to be opened again, and after that, they stayed open. There were always wars to fight, usually just border scraps or rebellions, but every now and then a full-fledged invasion like the ones into Britain, Dacia, Germania, or Parthia, or a really serious rebellion like the one in Judea would crop up. Even after Augustus had turned Rome into essentially a military power on the defensive, she still thrived on warfare.
The "Pax"s of the great empires are always rather decieving. Throughout the entirety of the "Pax Britannica" Great Britain fought literally hundreds of wars to maintain her mighty Empire, and I'm not sure I even have to talk about the "Pax Mongolica".
The "Pax" more signifies a Golden Age of prosperity for the Empire rather than it necessarily having been at peace.