The first Balkan war:
The Political map of the Balkans during the First Balkan war looked like this:
You can see the area of Thrace region, Macedonian region, Albania, big territories of Northern Greece, were still in the Control of Ottoman Empire.
Its good to be said that Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia, were countries who have been under the rule of the Ottoman empire for many years, and the path of there liberation took years.
When those countries were free, there was still territories from them populated by greeks, bulgarians, serbs who were still under the occupation of the Ottoman empire. Such country was Macedonia, a country that wasn't free and it was ruled by the Ottomans.
See this Ethnographic map made by german-english cartographer E.G. Ravenstein - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi..._in_Europe.jpg
IMRO (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization) have prepared to go on a Armed Struggle against the Ottoman empire, the preparations of this revolt took 10 years, when in 1903 the revolution in Macedonia has began, yet unprepared the greek, bulgarians, people borned in Macedonia, who have been fighting against the ottoman forces, have lost the struggle, and neither Bulgaria, Greece or Serbia were ready to aid them with military.
The afthermath of the Struggle resulted in casualties during the military campaigns themselves were comparatively small, but afterwards thousands were killed, executed or made homeless. Historian Barbara Jelavich estimates that about nine thousand homes were destroyed,and thousands of refugees were produced. According to Georgi Khadziev, 201 villages and 12,400 houses were burned, 4,694 people killed, with some 30,000 refugees fleeing to Bulgaria.
This act was actually the spark of the First Balkan, or actually this leaded to the creation of the so called "Balkans League".
The Balkan Legue was an military alliance which included Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, the alliance was signed at 1912 at the Summer. The Balkan Legue have issued a ultimatum to the Ottoman empire to withdraw all its forces from Macedonia and proclaim Macedonia an independent region without turkish forces, the Ottoman empire have refused, which leaded to the begging of the war.The war begin in 8 October 1912, first to declare war to the Ottoman empire was Montenegro, at 12 October all countries of the Balkan Legue have declared war to the Ottoman Empire. The Military operations during the First Balkan war
The deployed forces of this war were as fallowed:
The Ottoman army had mobilized 340,000 ottoman soldiers, 1203 mobile artillery pieces, and 1115 fortified artillery pieces
The Bulgarian army had mobilized 600,000 soldiers out of a population of 4,3 million people, however 370,000 soldiers have mobilized to fight the rest were only reserve. Bulgaria had 1116 artillery unites.
Serbia had used 220,000 serbian soldiers 226 artillery guns.
Greece used 115,000 soldiers, but also Greece had to take the naval battles against the Ottoman empire, the greeks had good modern navy.
Montenegro mobilized 44,000 soldiers 118 artillery guns. The theater of operation by the Bulgarian army
was in the region of Thrace. Bulgaria army was divided on 3 armies, the first battle was in Adrianople- Kirk Kilisse, where bulgarian 1st and 3th armies (180,000), defeated the ottoman east army (less then 100,000).
The Turkish army have retreated at the Galipoli peninsulla, because they believed that the Greek army will make amphibious assault(such attack was never commenced).
This mistake of the ottoman army gave the bulgarian army enough space, and the bulgarians besieged the fortress of Adrianople, and Kirk Kilisse was also taken by the bulgars.
The Ottoman army wanted to transport army from Syria and Palestine with navy transport, but it was stop by the superiority of the Greece navy, which played important role during the Thracian operations.
After the won battle and the taking of Kirk Kilisse, bulgarian army was order to stop operation, this has of course given time to the ottoman army to reinforce newer defensive positions.
The attack of the bulgarians have started again and the bulgarian army manage to cut off the defensive line of the Ottoman army, and the Bulgarians reached the Sea of Marmara. The Ottoman soldiers have made a new line of defense at Chataldja (which is 40 km. away from Constantinople).
Russia have warned Bulgaria that if Bulgaria attack Constantinople, Russia will attack Bulgaria, yet bulgarian army attacked the Chataldja defensive line, and the Turkish army manage to repulse the offensive. This resulted in a brief stalemate.
This time was needed to the Ottomans, who have decided to make a new Offensive both from Chataldja defensive line, and from Galipoli.
The Ottoman army attacked the Bulgarians, supported by ship artillery, but the attack was repulsed firstly by strong machingun fire by the bulgarians and artillery, then a counterattack by the Bulgarians have leaded the Galipoli counter offensive to a disaster for the Ottoman army.
Actually in that offensive by the Ottoman army, more bulgarian soldiers died, then ottoman, a tactical win, but strategicly the ottomans lost.
On March 11, Second Bulgarian army, alongside with serb devision, have assaulted the heavily defended fortress of Adrianople, and captured it, after long days of battle, this was an important victory, which demoralized the ottomans, and made any further fighting pointless. The theater of operations by the Greek army
was led on two fronts, Macedonia, and Epirus. Also there were naval fighting.
The Greek army have begin advance north toward Salonika.
Battle was fought over the city of Salonika, but eventually 20,000 ottoman soldiers have surrendered to the greek army, on November 9.
This city of Salonika actually predicted the defeat of the Ottoman soldiers in Macedonia, because Salonika was strategic very important town. The fall of Salonika left the Ottoman army in North Macedonia fighting the Greeks without any support, and supplies. The greeks have also succsesfuly captured Giannitsa. At November 10 Bulgaria dispatched 7th Rila division at the direction of the city of Giannitsa.
The Greeks have lost a battle of Vevi on November 15, because, the Greek 5th division was forced to retreat because it was fighting against outnumbering Ottoman soldiers.
In Epirus, the greek army was outnumbered, and the Ottoman army have conquered Preveza (this hapened 21 October 1912), and pushed north to the city of Ioannina.
However, Greek forces in the Epirote front had not the numbers to initiate an offensive against the German-designed defensive positions of Bizani that protected the city of Ioannina, and therefore had to wait for reinforcements from the Macedonian front.
After the lose of the Ottomans in Macedonia, large greek armies were transfered and the greek forces assaulted Bizani, and breached the defensive line. This was an important win for the greek army because the greek army continued, to northern Epirus.
At 20 December 1912 the greek navy, have taken control over most of the islands, and actually the greek navy established control over the sea of Northern Aegea. The moral of the Greek navy was boosted by the sunking of the old ottoman ironclad battleship "Feth-i-Bulalend".
At 16 December 1912, the Greeks have won a navel battle of Elli.
It was the last attempt of the Ottoman navy to leave the Dardanelles, thereby leaving the Greek navy dominant in the Aegean. General Ivanov, commander of the 2nd Bulgarian Army acknowledged the role of the Greek fleet in the overall Balkan League victory by stating that "the activity of the entire Greek fleet was the chief factor in the general success of the allies". Serb-Montenegrin theater of operations
was led in Vardar Macedonia, its objective was to destroy the Ottoman forces in Northern Macedonia.
The serbs helped the montenegro forces to take Sanjak, and sended two devision to the Thrace front to help the Bulgarian army.
The most important battle of Macedonia was the battle of Monastir, after that battle won by the serbs, the ottoman army had to retreat to Albania, which resulted in the liberation of Macedonia from the ottoman army.
The end of war is in 30 May 1913, with a treaty signed in London, this resulted in huge territory loses of the Ottoman empire, actually the Ottoman empire lost all land in Europe, exept Constantinople, and territories around it.