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Old February 26th, 2015, 04:41 PM   #31
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@ Shaheen - Thanks. I really do appreciate your contribution. Whats amazing about the British is that not only did they focus on Punjabi and Pashtun for recruits but that they than chose to narrow down the area to a few districts within these provinces.

This would be akin to the British Army selecting 70% of it's manpower from Wales and then narrow it's choice even more to just the South Wales Valleys. The preferred districts from the west in NWFP are Charsadda, Mardan, Kohat, Hazarah, into Punjab, Rawapindi, Chakwal, Jhelum, Gujranwala, Lahore and Faisalabad. This recruitment pattern remains same for Pakistan Army today. Officer selection is slightly more varied but even there it tends to favour these districts.

http://www.csas.ed.ac.uk/__data/asse...ed_Hussain.pdf

As the above report makes clear this tilt in recruitment from Punjab had begun even before 1900. Page 15 of the Report:-

"During the First World War, despite the emergency, the recruitment number was sharply contrasted between the regions. Bengal, with a population of 45 million, provided 7,000 combatant recruits; the Punjab, with a population of 20 million, provided 349,000 such recruits.NWFP, with a population of 2.25 million,contributed 32,181 combatant recruits".

Clearly Punjabi and Pashtuns [NWFP] were the preferred men for the British Raj forces. This was source of friction because in fact rest of British India was effectively subsidising Punjab and NWFP through the massive employment and investment in barracks etc.

We need to next look at the officer relations and making the Kings Commision open to 'natives'. this is a difficult subject handle because unfortunatly because which ever way I look at this racism is going to hanging around my shoulder. This was 1900s and not 2015.

The only mitigating thing I can say is that in those days it was a differant world. Class, gender, skin colour all I am afraid played a role and it was not just the British. It was all of us. For example how did our upper class treat the lowly servant? Not much better than a dog.

So I am not defending racism [ I have sufferd it at times here in UK and trust me I did not like it ] but we have to keep everything in context. The local aristocracy treated the ordinary man little better than mules. The British at least had a system, law. It was not arbitrary and flights of fancy that our local aristocrats dispensed. That is why men would prefer to work for the British. Okay they may have laws that within which there was embedded racism but at least you knew where you stood. Do your work, get paid and you could expect peace and justice.

The British officer class is what made the British Indian Army probably the most powerful force in Asia. The British Raj attracted a certain type of very adventurious and driven individuel who was prepared to immerse himself in the culture of his men and treat them fairly. For he was a good leader he could inspire his men forward.

Many of these British officers served their entire lives in British India. The highest rank a Asian could reach was a NCO and by 1900 there was talk of opening Kings Commision. There had been something called a Viceroy's Commisioned officer ( (VCO) but was not the same as Kings Commision officers ( KCO). Still a VCO could get to rank of Major ( equivalent to KCO ) which bearing the times we are taking about was not bad. In theory a Asian could outrank a English soldier. This would be impossible in most European or American armies of the time.

However things were going to get interesting. WW1 really brought change and Lord Montegu Secretary State of India announced opening the Kings Commision to the locals in 1917.

In 1918 Royal Military Academy Sandhurst made 5 vacancies available however ony one ultimatly reached commision. This was very poor showing and was the result of the very poor level of basic education in British India. Candidates general education would be far below the level of their British counterparts.

Over the following years the annual vacancies were increased to 12 by 1926 when 6 qualified as Kings Officers.General Ayub Khan who would go on to reach rank of Brigadier and see action in WW2 graduated in the class of 1928. Gen Ayub Khan would end being President of Pakistan in1959.



By 1930s significant numbers of men were getting into Sandhurst and by 1947 there was no shortage of ranks below brigadier. That is why post 1947 both Indian and Pakistan Armies had to retain British officers to man their senior staff positions [ above brigadier ] so for example General Douglas Gracey remained Chief of Staff Pakistan Army until 1951.

[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Gracey"]Douglas Gracey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]


Or the Directorate of Inter Services Intelligence or ISI - the Pakistan intelligence service which these days recieves lot of attention because of alleged links to Taliban was set up and directed by Major General Robert Cawthorne from 1950 to 1959.

[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Cawthome"]Robert Cawthome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]


Or Brigadier Francis Ingal who set up and was the first commandent of the Pakistan Military Academy near Abbotabad.

[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Ingall"]Francis Ingall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]


So although the crop of officers from 1920s gathered up with many like Ayub Khan gaining WW2 combat experiance by 1947 they still not reach staff position and post 1947 Pakistan many British officers continued working at the senior command positions building up the military machine which dominates Pakistan today. From mid 1950s USA would start asserting it's role and become the lead player in Pakistan.

Today although the last of those men retired by 1960 the traditions and structures continue to exist and in a sense the British Raj still continues to echo in the buildings, institutions down to even bag pipes of some Frontier regiments which no doubt acquired them from the Highlanders time holding the line on the frontier.



Bagpipes of the Frontier Regiment



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Old February 26th, 2015, 05:02 PM   #32
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Shaheen View Post
A British article on Khudadad Khan:


It was an extraordinary act of bravery. Finding himself among the few surviving members of a force sent to repel a German advance at Ypres, a soldier manned a single machine gun to prevent the enemy making the breakthrough it needed.
Continuing to fire until he was the last man remaining, his actions helped to ensure that two vital ports used to supply British troops with food and ammunition from England, remained in Allied hands.

Now, 100 years on from being awarded the Victoria Cross for his bravery, a series of military leaders, MPs, peers and Muslim leaders are calling for wider recognition of Khudadad Khan's role in the First World War. The call forms part of a plea for greater appreciation of the contribution of the hundreds of thousands of Muslim soldiers who fought for Britain in the war.

On Friday, unveiling a commemorative stone which will be laid at the National Memorial Arboretum in Khan’s honour, Lord Ahmad of Wimbledon, the communities minister, will hail his “exceptional loyalty, courage and determination in Britain’s fight for freedom”.

Khan, who was born in the village of Dab in the Punjab province of present day Pakistan, was a 26-year-old machine gunner in the 129th Duke of Counaught’s Own Baluchis when the regiment was sent to France to aid the exhausted troops of the British Expeditionary Force.

On October 31 1914 the Baluchis fought in water-logged ground against German soldiers with far more effective weaponry than theirs, in order to help prevent the enemy from advancing towards the ports of Boulogne in France and Nieuwpoort in Belgium.
Amid devastating losses two machine gun crews, including Khan’s, managed to hold their position and continue to fire on enemy troops throughout the day.

When the second crew were killed as the result of a direct shell hit, the six remaining soldiers continued to fight, with Khan pressing on despite being badly wounded.
He was the last surviving member of the crew after it was overrun by the Germans and he was left for dead. His citation noted that he “remained working his gun until all the other five men of the gun detachment had been killed.”

That night he crawled away and rejoined what was left of his regiment to continue fighting. He died in Pakistan in 1971 aged 82.


Story of the first Muslim soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross - Telegraph

Baloch Regiment praying at Woking

Click the image to open in full size.
If that scene was repeated 100 years later in what is without a doubt more tolerant society and bunch of wild looking Pakistani's in suburban Brighton started to pray openly the first thought would be " terrorists" !

How the world has changed .. for the good in some ways and in some ways for the bad. I have seen the Polish and Latvian erect plaques in honour of their dead in the WW Memorial Gardens and I think in towns where there are Pakistani's it's about time they did the same after all their contribution was far larger.

I am not too happy with the 'Muslim' tag. It's no point in making all the effort in unravelling from the 'Indian' unbrella and then get subsumed under another unbrella 'Muslim' which can mean Morrocan, Algerian,Tunisian, Egyptian, Iraqi, Saudi, Syrian, Turk, Iranian, Yemani, Bengali, Malay etc .

They were our boys, they were our grandads or great grandads and last time I checked my green coloured passport it said "Pakistan".

These are the fighting men of the Baloch Regiment many of whom would never go back to their families. 100 years later their successor The Baloch Regiment is a senior infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army.


[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baloch_Regiment"]Baloch Regiment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

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Old February 26th, 2015, 07:03 PM   #33
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Woking Muslim Burial ground. This houses the dead of the Muslim elements of the British Indian Army nearly all of whom will have been Pashtun or Punjabi Muslims of what is now Pakistan.


Woking's Muslim Burial Ground - Exploring Surrey's Past



Click the image to open in full size.

Entrance to the Muslim War Cemetry and the link below takes you to the Surrey Heritage Site which has a map of British India with Urdu writing below it. Urdu today is the national language of Pakistan.

http://www.exploringsurreyspast.org....b-2015-ESP.pdf

The link below has some great photo's including the grave of another Baloch Regiment hero Sepoy Mahrup Shah 1917 and another Sowar Allah Ditta Khan of the now defunct Multani unit recruited from central Pakistan city of Multan. Sepoy Sikander Khan of the Punjab Regiment. For some weird reason this website is tagged as Sikh when it relates to Punjabi or Pashtun Muslims which appears a bit strange. I strongly recomend people go through the link below it's got great photos of the Woking Mosque and Punjabi Muslims soldiers standing with their officer.


Indian & Sikh Soldiers World War I | Muslim Burial Ground Woking

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Old February 26th, 2015, 10:23 PM   #34

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When we describe soldiers of British India, how was their economic back ground, how they were treated, how much paid, should be looked after as well. Instead if we just focus on their heroism, it would be incomplete.

The soldiers of Army were mostly poor and uneducated, every one knows massive poverty British rule caused in India. So Army was seen as a major source of employment. For example in 1942 sepoys were given Rs 25 as salary, food and promotion if possible, which was good payment in contemporary India. This lured poor Indians to serve in Army. A secure livelihood is all that mattered for Sepoys.

The book Red Coats to Olive Green covers history of official Indian army from 1600-1974(accidentally it 1674).

The debate of partition was good or bad aside(just assuming it was good) it is truth without INA British would not leave India and if British did not leave India, Pakistan too would not be formed. the men of Indian Legion of Germany were not mercenaries. If they were they would fight for Germany in Russia. But that did not happen and German Military Command for this reason executed 10 Indian soldiers. They were only instructed to fight those battles which had some thing to do with India.

Click the image to open in full size.

Captain Malik Munawar Khan Awan ex 5 Punjab British Indian Army (later Major, 21AK Regt, Pakistan Army, recipient of Sitara e Jurat) was the commander of the most feared 2nd INA Guerrilla Regiment during Battle of Imphal

Here I must thank Pakistan very warmly, that unlike Indian Government, Pakistan Government took all ex-INA men into new Pakistani Military.

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Old February 27th, 2015, 05:48 AM   #35

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Financial reasons may have been a reason for why many volunteered to join the army but its also important to mention I feel that soldiery is seen as an honourable profession especially amongst the people of the Salt Ranges (Northern Punjab) and the Frontier (modern day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Letters sent by soldiers often mention words like izzat (honour) and the glory of soldiery. The current chief of the Pakistani army Raheel Sharif for example comes from a family who have a long history of serving in the army (despite being financially well off now [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raheel_Sharif"]Raheel Sharif - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]).

“To die on the battlefield is glory,” (Khudadad Khan) echoing the feeling amongst many Muslim soldiers that war brought the opportunity for heroism on the battlefield, and the chance to win honour. “We should be ashamed to go back till after we have won the victory,” wrote Dafadar Fazl Khan of the 18th Lancers in October 1916. The notion of izzat (honour) was one that was used to recruit Muslim men of the empire, and so important was the Muslim contribution in both World Wars that Churchill himself wrote, “We must not on any account break with the Muslims who represent 100 million people and the main army elements which we must rely on for the immediate fighting.”

Forgotten Heroes - The Muslim Contribution | Feature Articles | Features | November 2009 | emel - the muslim lifestyle magazine

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Old February 27th, 2015, 05:55 AM   #36

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Agree it was a professional fighting force, Honor(izzat) and glory of soldiery mattered. The payment mattered most during world wars when government wanted to recruit as many men as possible so always "martial race" formula could not be followed. But in peacetime years standing army was 200,000, then izzat(honor) or soldiery mattered most as in this time soldiers were recruited exclusively from martial races.

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Old February 27th, 2015, 06:12 AM   #37
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Punjab Regiment that was allocated to Pakistan in 1947. The regiment is based in Mardan, NWFP. Two of it's men won Victoria Cross. Sepoy Sher Shah VC and Subedar Shahamad Khan VC.

Punjab Regiment (Pakistan) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sepoy Sher Shah VC - Sher Shah (VC) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jemadar Shahamad Khan VC - [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahamad_Khan"]Shahamad Khan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]


Click the image to open in full size.

The Punjab Regiment's centre was attacked recently by a teenage Taliban suicide bomber. All troops are restricted to be base in uniform and security has been beefed up.

Click the image to open in full size.

Modern day patrol of the Punjab Regiment,Pakistan Army. The successors to Sepoy Sher Shah VC and his comrades.

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Old February 27th, 2015, 06:30 AM   #38

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Mean while it should be also mentioned Khyber rifles. It was recruited manily from Afridi tribesman. It saw extensive service against Pashtuns. in present North West Pakistan.

How ever during 3rd Anglo-Afghan war, Khyber Rifles deserted en mass. Which led British to disband this unit. Although later it was raised again.

Khyber Rifles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"At this time, however, trouble struck in the British rear along their line of communications through the Khyber where the Khyber Rifles began to become disaffected by the situation and began to desert en masse. As a result, it was decided to disarm and disband the regiment in an effort to stop the spread of similar sentiment to other regiments"

Third Anglo-Afghan War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8th para.
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Old February 27th, 2015, 08:25 AM   #39
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@ Shaheen - Again thank you for your contribution. Who can argue with Winston Churchil who had fought in NWFP now Pakistan.

Churchill himself wrote, “We must not on any account break with the Muslims who represent 100 million people and the main army elements which we must rely on for the immediate fighting.” This for me sums up the contribution of Muslims of what is now Pakistan.

From NWFP to Salt Range down to Jhelum soldiering even today in Pakistan is seen as a honourable profession - There is deep respect for military in this region.

I want to also look at the paramilitary forces and part time forces that British recruited along the Afghan boder. These tended to be part time and poorly trained and poorly paid but they still helped to beef up border defences.

Collectively they were called the the Frontier Corp's and budget for running these locally recruited battalion sized units limited the men to basic weapons and uniforms. However the local British officials being ever so productive used elements of local clothing to produce very unique uniforms derived from the local Shalwar Kameez worn by the men.This did the job on a shoestring. This tradition continues today.

Let's look at the colourful Chitral Rifles who continue to use the Shalwar kameez as their uniform including Chitral version of Pakul cap and the Markhor is the unit symbol

Click the image to open in full size.
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The Frontier Corp still provides the men to guard the border from high alpine area of Chitral [ above ] to Khyber Rifles guarding the Khyner Pass. The Frontier is based in Peshawar and uses as it's hq the historical Bala Hisar Fort

Click the image to open in full size.

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This fort has been destroyed and rebuilt over 2 thousand years history as invaders flooded through the Khyber Pass from Central Asia and Peshawar is right at the base of the Pass. The last people to re build it were British and since then it has served as Frontier Corp Hq. Interesting video below.

Click the image to open in full size.


Play the link History of the fort - http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x19mt15_video-peshawar-fort-balahisar-a-journey-through-time_news?start=19

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Old February 28th, 2015, 12:06 PM   #40
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Click the image to open in full size.Click the image to open in full size.
Most of the British Army units posted to British India were garrisoned in NWFP or Balochistan to forestall any possible Russian exapansion from the top left [ Afghanistan, Central Asian Russia ] and Punjab provided the major share of recruits to the British India.

The names of Baloch, NWFP [ Frontier ] or Punjab will crop up often in any study of British Indian Army. As I said before NWFP, Punjab, Balochistan Sindh are the constituent ethnic groups that map modern Pakistan .

The North West of thye country is full of British era military barracks, forts, housing, churchs and all the other support structures that kept the vast British military machine functioning in this part of the world. There are too many pictures but I will post a sample. Lot of these structures are still in use by Pak military today so are out of bounds and photography is forbidden.

Click the image to open in full size.

Nicholson's Obelisk near Taxila only a few miles from Islamabad. Maj. Gen Nicholson earned lot of respect in this part of Pakistan for being a fair man.

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General Nicholson's Obelisk


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Gen. Lockhart's Memorial, Rawapindi to adjacent to Pak Army GHQ.

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During the WW2 the British were increasingly worried about the German advance towards the Caucaus. If Germans had broken through Central asia would have been theirs a taack through Khyber Pass was expected. So accordingly the Khyber Pass recieved extra defences like this light British Tank

Click the image to open in full size.

Click the image to open in full size.


Today the pass almost carries 75% of the supplies to NATO forces in Afghanistan.
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Click the image to open in full size.

So many years after the British left Khyber Pass remains a strategic route. When Winston Churchil fought the tribals now me of the Khyber or Frontier Corp fight to keep order so that the trucks that supply NATO keep rolling. Although now and then the Taliban do achieve success in particular when they managed to ambush a fuel convoy.

Click the image to open in full size.

Click the image to open in full size.
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