A Patriotic Yoga: The Deep History of the Tendon-Changing Classic

Mar 2011
This is an expansion of a previous article.

A Patriotic Yoga: The Deep History of the Tendon-Changing Classic

By Jim R. McClanahan​

A common legend circulating in martial arts circles is that the monk Bodhidharma (c. 6th-century CE) created Chinese martial arts while staying in the famous Shaolin Monastery. Stan Henning explains that this story does not predate the 20th-century. He examined documents going back to the 18th-century, but found nothing tying the monk directly to Shaolin boxing. The first work that associated the two was the popular satirical novel The Travels of Lao Ts’an (老殘遊記, serialized in a magazine from 1904 to 1907). This connection was then echoed in later literature and martial arts manuals, eventually becoming a common “fact.”[1] Brian Kennedy comments the martial scholar Tang Hao (唐豪, 1897–1959) was the first person to debunk the rapidly spreading legend with the publishing of his book Study of Shaolin and Wudang (少林武當考) in 1920. He combed through historical records to show that Bodhidharma did not originally know martial arts. Hao’s critique of the legend earned him the ire of boxers who planned to accost him before a friend negotiated an uneasy truce. [2]

Meir Shahar writes that the connection may have been influenced by a manual attributed to the monk entitled the Tendon-Changing Classic (Yijin Jing, 易筋經). It comprises a yoga-like exercise designed to strengthen the body. The manual contains two forged prefaces attributed to two Chinese generals, Li Jing (李靖, 571– 649) of the Tang Dynasty and Niu Gao (牛皋), a subordinate of the famous patriot Yue Fei (岳飛, 1103–1141), of the Song Dynasty (fig. 1). The prefaces state that the exercise was handed down from Bodhidharma through a chain of holy men and martial heroes, and that it had been the source of Li and Yue’s respective strategic prowess and great physical strength. The manual, however, does not predate the 17th-century, and it contains historical inaccuracies and outright fictions drawn from popular literature. [3] Marnix Wells has shown that famous 18th-century vernacular fiction alluded to the Tendon-Changing Classic and associated its practice with strong men and martial artists with invincible bodies. This shows that the exercise was so widely practiced at the time that readers could recognize it without having to mention the manual by name. [4] Therefore, it’s easy to see how the correlation between Bodhidharma and martial strength could have culminated in the 20th-century legend. But why was the exercise so prevalent?

Fig. 1 - A modern artist's depiction of General Yue Fei.​

While many have written about the Tendon-Changing Classic, no one has attempted to answer this question. I take on this challenge by exploring the deeper history of the manual. In this paper I theorize that the Chinese came to consider the exercise, and martial arts associated with it, a form of anti-foreign resistance to the Manchu invaders who would conquer China; and that by practicing it, they performed their identities as Chinese patriots. The first section will show that the purported author published it during a time of great political and economic turmoil when China was threatened by internal rebellion and external invasion. The second will show that the exercise came to be associated with martial heroes in later Chinese popular culture because the manual alludes to noted fictional and historical strongmen. And the third will show how the Classic influenced patriotic martial artists struggling against the foreign rulers of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) to attribute their boxing styles to Yue Fei and/or pay homage to him in their writings.

Historical context

There are several physical editions of the Tendon-Changing Classic in existence, the oldest of which may hail from the 17th-century. It carries a comment which reads: “Stored at the Narrating-Antiquities Library of Qian Zunwang.” [5] This may refer to a certain Qian Ceng (钱曾), with the style name Zunwang (尊王), who is recorded to have lived from 1629-1701. This version has an undated postscript by a person with the pen name Purple Elixir Daoist (紫凝道人, Zining Daoren), who lived on Mt. Tiantai in Zhejiang province. His name appears on several of the following versions. An 1884 edition dates his postscript to 1624, lending credence to a copy of it being in Qian Ceng’s library.[6]

If accurate, the manual was published during the infamous reign of the Tianqi emperor (天啟, r. 1620-1627). According to William Atwell, “The T'ien-ch'i period was a disastrous one in Chinese history, and the T'ien-ch'i emperor has acquired the worst reputation of the dynasty's rather undistinguished rulers.”[7] His short time on the throne was one of supreme neglect; much like his father, the Wanli emperor (萬曆, r. 1573-1620), he was uninterested in his day to day responsibilities as a ruler and retreated to his inner quarters to pursue his hobbies. There he practiced woodcraft, making furniture and models of the palace, instead of attending to his sovereignly duties. The responsibility of running the country then passed into the hands of court officials, some of whom took the Tianqi emperor’s absence as an opportunity to amass great power and wealth, as well as to purge their political enemies from court and from the world of the living.[8]

Meanwhile, the country suffered from several calamities. A major economic decline was brought on by a worldwide silver shortage. Peruvian silver that originally stimulated the world economy stopped flowing as freely, and so Sino-Spanish trade normally carried on in the Philippines declined, leading to economic hardships on the coastal areas of China. The resulting chain of cause and effect echoed inward leading to similar problems in the interior.[9] These hardships were exacerbated by natural disasters. Atwell notes:

Fires swept Hangchow, Peking, and other major cities, destroying tens of thousands of homes and businesses. A major earthquake struck the P'ing-liang area of modern Kansu province in 1622, causing heavy property damage and reportedly killing more than 12,000 people. In 1623 the Yellow River, which at this period emptied into the sea south of the Shantung peninsula, burst its dikes in northern Nan Chihli, inundating vast tracts of land in and around Hsii-chou subprefecture. Severe flooding struck in Nan Chihli during August 1624, with Hsii-chou again being particularly hard hit.[10]​

Said disasters led to a number of peasant rebellions that weakened the already crumbling dynasty from within. For instance, a contingent of the millennial messianic White Lotus (白莲教) Buddhist sect captured several cities in Shandong and Henan provinces in 1622. Its greatest victory was gaining control over strategic areas along the Grand Canal, a major waterway that connected the coastal areas with the capital, thus giving them stewardship over the “throat of the polity.”[11] The rebellion is said to have had as many as two million followers, which explains why it was able to conquer as much territory as it did in just a few short months. The movement was eventually crushed when the dynasty transferred “battle-hardened” troops from China’s northern borders to deal with the problem.[12] It should be noted for the purposes of this paper that the rebellion was actually an amalgam of a religious group, the aforementioned White Lotus sect, and a martial arts group known as the Cudgel and Whip Society (棒棰會). Joseph W. Esherick suggests that this rebellion was “one of the first in which a martial arts association combined with a forbidden [religious] sect to produce a major challenge to the Chinese state.”[13] The reason that this is notable is because it shows the Tendon-Changing Classic evolved in a cultural environment that associated religion with martial arts. Although it has no direct martial application—i.e., no punching or kicking—recall that the manual’s prefaces claim that the so-called Buddhist exercise was the source of Yue Fei’s military prowess.

Fig. 2 - A map of Northern China. The Shanhai Pass (Shanhaiguan) is indicated in red.

It’s important at this point to ask why the manual might have been published in 1624. To answer this we must first discuss events that took place prior to the Tianqi era. China has been plagued by nomadic invaders for thousands of years. Both Generals Li and Yue were known for their successful campaigns against nomadic foes. For example, Li Jing used a large force of light cavalry, normally a tactic used by nomads of the northern region, to defeat the Turk Khanate in 630. [14] Active 500 years later, Yue Fei and his elite unit, the famous Yue Family Army (岳家軍), pushed the invading Jurchen armies of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) back into their own territory in 1140. However, when he was on the verge of conquering the nomads and regaining all lost Chinese lands, he was recalled back to the capital. The emperor had been influenced by the country’s corrupt prime minister, the traitor Qin Hui (秦檜, 1090–1155), to pursue a policy of peace. In order to keep Yue from interfering in the process, Qin had him imprisoned under false pretenses and later murdered in jail. Thus, Yue Fei passed into the Chinese memory as a paragon of loyalty and a symbol of anti-foreign resistance. [15]

The Jin dynasty continued to plague China until they were defeated by the Mongols in 1234. The Jurchens remained on the periphery of China’s borders for centuries, even being subjugated by the rulers of the Ming Dynasty in the late 14th-century. [16] That is until the coming of the Chieftain Nurhaci (努爾哈赤, 1559–1626), who consolidated all of the independent Jurchen tribes under his authority. He proclaimed himself the emperor of the latter Jin Dynasty (後金朝) in 1616, signaling his independence from China, and officially broke alliance with the Ming in 1618. [17] He went on to win a number of decisive battles against joint Chinese-Korean forces, leading him to conquer most of the Liaodong Peninsula in extreme northeast China between 1619 and 1621. [18] This of course brings us back to the Tianqi era. Martial law was enacted in the Ming capital of Beijing in 1621 and additional Chinese forces were sent to guard the Shanhai pass, the easternmost area of the Great Wall of China. A Chinese excursion into the Chieftain’s lands caused Nurhaci to launch an attack in 1622 that forced the Ming army to retreat from the pass into a defensive posture. The nomad warned the Chinese fleeing from his troops, “Come out of hiding and down from the mountains because even if you go inside the Shan-hai Pass…my great army will enter the Pass in 1623–24.” [19] This would have put him on the Chinese side of the Great Wall, a mere 175 miles from Beijing (fig. 2). However, a power struggle in his native Manchuria kept him from doing so. [20]

If all of this information is taken into account, we see that the Tendon-Changing Classic was published during a time that coincided with economic decline, fires that destroyed homes, floods that ravaged crops, internal rebellions that disrupted lives, and external invasions that threatened death. To put it bluntly, the Chinese people of the Tianqi era were downtrodden. The Purple Elixir Daoist, the author of manual, was no doubt a witness to these compiling calamities. Therefore, I suggest that he published the manual in 1624, the year that Nurhaci threatened to enter China. He probably did this because he wanted to make the patriotic claim that practicing the yoga-like exercise would give the Chinese people the strength necessary to face the nomads like it had done for Li Jing and Yue Fei. This is suggested by a section of the Purple Elixir Daoist’s postscript, “If they obtain [the exercise] and practice it—if they take it and expand upon it—then on a large scale [the people] will render the state meritorious service, and on a small scale they will protect self and family.” [21] It’s important to remember that Nurhaci was after all a descendent of the people General Yue originally struggled against during the Song Dynasty. And since the Ming Dynasty was Yue Fei’s “golden age”—for instance, he was canonized as a Daoist protector deity, no less than four fictionalized dynastic chronologies of his life were written, and the poem "River Awash in Red" (滿江紅) was posthumously attributed to him—the people would have taken up the practice with gusto. [22]

Association with Chinese heroes

The great strength that the Purple Elixir Daoist promised the Chinese people is the result of faithfully following a yoga-like exercise designed to bolster the body. This strength is forged from the cultivation and circulation of an esoteric internal energy known as qi (氣). This energy is developed through the ingestion of herbal medications and the performance of breathing exercises, and then circulated throughout the body via muscle kneading and the execution of twelve dynamic yoga postures. The resulting “internal robustness” is translated externally with a series of body-conditioning exercises. A wooden pestle is used to beat muscles about the arms, torso, and legs, while a cloth bag full of pebbles is used to work the tendons, especially on the hands and wrists. This hardens the tissues, making them much stronger.[23] This is why the manual is called the Tendon-Changing Classic.

The manual claims those who master the prescribed practices will gain an invincible body capable of supernatural feats of strength. For instance, a section describing the conditioning of the hands states that they “will become as hard as stone and iron and the fingers will be able to go through a bullock's abdomen and the palm on edge will be able to decapitate a bullock's head.”[24] Another version of the Classic adds the ability to kill a tiger by punching it in the head.[25] This is a clear allusion to a popular literary figure from the Chinese classic the Water Margin (水滸傳, c. 1400). The protagonist Wu Song (武松) is a Chinese outlaw who uses his great strength to fight the unjust Song Dynasty government. In one episode, he drunkenly stumbles into the mountains on his way home when he comes across a man-eating tiger. He initially defends himself with a walking stick, but when the makeshift weapon snaps, he beats the animal to the brink of death with his bare hands (fig. 3). The story reads:

[Wu Song] seized the animal by the rough and bore down. The tiger struggled frantically, but Wu Song was exerting all of his strength, and wouldn’t give an inch. He kicked the beast in the face and eyes, again and again. The tiger roared, its wildly scrabbling claws pushing back two piles of yellow earth and digging a pit before it. Wu Song pressed the animal’s muzzle into the pit, weakening it further. Still relentlessly clutching the beast by the ruff with his left hand, Wu Song freed his right, big as an iron mallet, and with all his might began to pound…After sixty or seventy blows the tiger, blood streaming from eyes, mouth, nose and ears, lay motionless… [26]​

The manual goes on to name other feats of strength, such as lifting a portcullis (defensive gate) and a ceremonial caldron weighing 1,000 catties (1,300 lbs). These are allusions to famous strong men from Chinese history. The first is a reference to the heroic father of the famed philosopher Confucius (孔夫子, c. 551–479 BC) who is said to have lifted a huge iron gate to help his army comrades escape from an enemy.[27] The second is a reference to the Warlord Xiang Yu (項羽, 232–202 BCE) who is recorded to have lifted such a caldron in his youth.[28] The Purple Elixir Daoist did not need to mention these fictional and historical figures by name because they were deeply ingrained in the Chinese cultural memory. Therefore, I suggest associating the manual with powerful cultural heroes is why the exercise came to be connected with martial artists and strong men in later Chinese popular culture.

Fig. 3 - Wu Song beating the tiger.​

Marnix Wells comments that the earliest reference to the Tendon-Changing Classic appears in Chinese fiction.[29] The exercise is alluded to in the novel Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio (聊齋志異, 1766), a collection of supernatural stories. The brief tale “Steel Shirt” opens with the following lines: “Sha Huizi was a master of the powerful form of kung fu known as Steel Shirt. He could hack through the neck of an ox with the flat of his hand. He could thrust his hand directly into the animal’s belly.”[30] This is obviously referencing the material cited above. The rest of the story describes how Sha orders two men to hang a large block of wood from the ceiling. Upon release, it swings in an arch and bounces off of his rock hard stomach. He then demonstrates the full extent of his invulnerability by pounding on his penis with a hammer and anvil. He declines to replicate the feat with a knife, however. The author of the Strange Tales, Pu Songling (蒲松齡, 1640-1715), gathered such stories during the Qing Dynasty and they were later posthumously published by his son. The fact that this story alludes to the Classic points to its widespread popularity at that time.

The manual makes an appearance in the popular Chinese novel The Unofficial History of the Forest of the Scholars (儒林外史, 1750). The work is a collection of loosely connected stories dealing with bumbling scholars and their association with various characters. One such character is the hero Feng Mingqi (鳳鳴岐) who derives his great strength from the Classic. The novel reads: “That boxing manual of his says: 'His clenched fist can shatter a tiger's head, and with the side of his palm he can fell an ox.'”[31] Again, the ability to kill a tiger and an ox in such a manner is taken directly from the Classic. The rest of the episode states that Brother Hu, a martial artist with a powerful kick, breaks his toes when he accepts a challenge to kick Feng in the groin.[32] It’s interesting to note that Feng is loosely based on the real life martial artist Gan Fengchi (甘風池, fl. 1730) who used his skills to fight against the Qing Dynasty Government.[33] Gan is described in Chinese records as being able to “[squeeze] lead into liquid with his bare hands [and cure] patients by sitting with them back to back and emitting his internal energy into their bodies.[34] This emphasis on hand strength and the use of internal energy suggests Gan may have been a practitioner of the Tendon-Changing Classic.

Influence on Qing Martial arts

Shahar notes that the Classic “is the earliest extant manual that assigns daoyin [yoga] gymnastics a martial role” and that its author “was the first to explicitly associate military, therapeutic, and religious goals in one training routine.”[35] This inspired later martial artists of the Qing Dynasty to create a new form of self-cultivation by combining yoga with pugilism. Taijiquan (太極拳, Grand Ultimate boxing), for example, is a product of this synthesis. The Martial Arts Writings of Mr. Chang (萇氏武技書), an 18th-century work that would influence the development of the style, mentions the Classic by name, borrows heavily from its method of cultivating internal strength,[36] and even associates a two-handed pushing move known as “Two Hands Push Mountain” with Yue Fei. An accompanying instructional poem closes with the lines: “The orders of the invincible army of Yue Fei may be taken as a model. Turn your steps and push repeatedly with both hands.”[37] This description is meant to evoke the imagery of Yue Fei’s army pushing the Jin barbarians out of China. The author of the aforementioned manual, Chang Naizhou (萇乃週, 1724–1783) lived during a time when the Chinese were forbidden to practice martial arts, so this was most likely a veiled jab at the Manchu rulers of China. It should be mentioned that this two-handed move is similar to one of the twelve yoga postures from the Classic (fig. 4). Entitled “Pushing out the claws and extending the wings,” the practitioner is told to do the following:

Fix the body and let the eyes be angry.
Push the hands forward in front of the chest.
With strength turn back
Seven times to complete the exercise.[38]​

Whether or not the move “Two Hands Push Mountain” was actually influenced by this yoga posture is unknown to me, but the author’s mention of the Tendon-Changing Classic and allusion to Yue Fei makes this a subject ripe for further study.

Fig. 4 - The "Pushing out the claws and extending the wings" yoga posture.

Taiji is considered an “internal” martial art. The dichotomy between “internal” and “external” styles was first mentioned in scholar Huang Zongxi’s 1669 epitaph for the famous martial artist Wang Zhengnan. The opening reads:

Shaolin is famous for its boxers. However, its techniques are chiefly offensive, which creates opportunities for an opponent to exploit. Now there is another school that is called “internal,” which overcomes movement with stillness. Attackers are effortlessly repulsed. Thus we distinguish Shaolin as “external.”

The Internal School was founded by Zhang Sanfeng of the Song Dynasty, Sanfeng was a Daoist alchemist of the Wudang Mountains. He was summoned by Emperor Huizong of the Song, but the road was impassable. That night he dreamt that the God of War transmitted the art of boxing to him and the following morning [he] single-handedly killed over a hundred bandits.[39]​

This appears at first glance to be making a distinction between so-called “hard” and “soft” techniques, the former relying more on physical strength and the latter on timing and redirection of an opponent’s force. However, this epitaph was actually a veiled political statement. Here, internal refers to the native peoples of China, while external refers to the foreign rulers of the Qing. The statement relies on the common people’s knowledge that Wudang practices Daoism, a native or internal religion, while Shaolin practices Buddhism, a foreign or external religion that originated in another country. By using this terminology, anti-Manchu patriots were free to discuss the problems that plagued China in full view of their foreign masters without incurring their wrath.[40]

The martial artist Wang Zhengnan (王征南) and his student Huang Baijia (黄百家), the son of the aforementioned scholar, were famous for their Neijiaquan (内家拳, Internal School Fist). This of course was a veiled statement meaning that those of the “Internal School” used their martial arts to resist the Qing dynasty. Just like Chang Naizhou, the skills that they passed on eventually helped give rise to Taiji boxing. The generally accepted creator of the style is Wang Zongyue (王宗岳). Douglas Wile has suggested that this “was actually a patriotic allusion to Yue Fei, Zongyue meaning ‘Revering Yue.’”[41] Therefore, I suggest these martial artists used Yue Fei as a symbol of anti-foreign resistance to elevate their Tendon-Changing Classic-inspired boxing styles to the level of a nationalistic practice. By practicing these styles, these martial artists would have performed their identities as Chinese patriots.

In conclusion, the Tendon-Changing Classic is a yoga-like exercise designed to strengthen the body. It was most likely published in response to the threat of a Manchu invasion in 1624. The author purposely associated the manual with famed 12th-century General Yue Fei, who had historically battled the ancestors of these nomadic people. This was done to make the patriotic claim that practicing the exercise would give the Chinese the same strength to battle the invaders like their cultural hero. The manual claims those who master its prescribed practices will gain an invincible body capable of supernatural feats of strength, such as killing a tiger with the fists. This is a clear allusion to the popular literary character Wu Song who beats a tiger to death in the Chinese classic the Water Margin (c. 1400). Alluding to such a powerful figure influenced later Chinese popular culture to associate the exercise with martial heroes and strong men. The Tendon-Changing Classic influenced martial artists of the Qing dynasty to combine yoga with pugilism to create a new form of self-cultivation. The internal Taiji boxing style was a product of this synthesis. Martial arts manuals associated with this style draw heavily from the Classic and even pay homage to Yue Fei by associating particular techniques with him. Chinese patriots used these Tendon-Changing Classic-inspired styles to fight the Manchus, so associating them with Yue Fei elevated their martial arts to a nationalistic practice.

Thus, we see a religious exercise was transformed into martial arts used to battle foreign invaders, enabling practitioners to perform their identities as Chinese patriots. This type of “patriotic kung fu,” if you will, is best exemplified in the fight scene between the character Chen Zhen and the Japanese Karate practitioners in the 1972 film Fist of Fury. This is because Bruce Lee’s character considers it a patriotic duty to defeat the Japanese with his Chinese kung fu. In this way, Bruce becomes a symbol of anti-foreign resistance just like Yue Fei, and the Japanese become symbolic of the Manchus since they originate from a foreign country and come to conquer China.


[1] Thomas A. Green, Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2001), 129.
[2] Brian Kennedy and Elizabeth Guo, Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey (Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books, 2005), 47-50.
[3] Meir Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2008), 160-171.
[4] Marnix Wells and Naizhou Chang, Scholar Boxer: Chang Naizhou's Theory of Internal Martial Arts and the Evolution of Taijiquan ; with Complete Translation of the Original Writings (Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books, 2005), 18.
[5] Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, 203.
[6] Ibid, 204.
[7] Denis Crispin Twitchett and Frederick W. Mote, The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 595.
[8] Ibid.
[9] Ibid, 603-604.
[10] Ibid, 604.
[11] Roger V Des Forges, Cultural Centrality and Political Change in Chinese History: Northeast Henan in the Fall of the Ming (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2003), 179.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Joseph Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprising (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 41.
[14] David Andrew Graff, Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300-900 (London: Routledge, 2002), 187-188.
[15] Kenneth James Hammond, The Human Tradition in Premodern China (Wilmington, Del: Scholarly Resources, 2002), 97-110.
[16] Denis Crispin Twitchett, The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, Part I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 9-12.
[17] Ibid, 37 and 41.
[18] Ibid, 42.
[19] Ibid, 38.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, 174.
[22] James T. C. Liu, "Yueh Fei (1103-41) and China's Heritage of Loyalty," The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Feb., 1972), 294-296.
[23] A near complete translation can be found in John Dudgeon, The Beverages of the Chinese Kung-Fu; or, Tauist Medical Gymnastics; the Population of China; a Modern Chinese Anatomist; and a Chapter in Chinese Surgery (Tientsin: Tientsin Press, 1895), 229-247.
[24] Ibid, 243.
[25] Wells, Scholar Boxer, 18.
[26] Shi Nai'an, Guanzhong Luo, and Sidney Shapiro, Outlaws of the Marsh (Vol. 1) (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1993), 467.
[27] Shigeki Kaizuka notes that this feat “was not born of recklessness, but rather of cool discrimination, and a staunch sense of duty” (Shigeki Kaizuka, Confucius: His Life and Thought (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2002), 155). This is comparable to the second preface of the Tendon-Changing Classic in which states Yue Fei used his “divine strength” in his duty to defend China (Shahar, Shaolin Monastery, 169.).
[28] Peter Allan Lorge, Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 61.
[29] Wells, Scholar Boxer, 18.
[30] Pu Songling and John Minford, Strange tales from a Chinese studio (London: Penguin, 2006), tale #86.
[31] Wu, Jingzi, and Yang Hsien yi. The Scholars (Peking: Foreign languages press, 1957), 643.
[32] Ibid.
[33] Shahar, Shaolin Monastery, 165.
[34] Ibid, 153.
[35] Ibid, 165.
[36] Douglas Wile, Tai Chi's Ancestors: The Making of an Internal Martial Art. ([S.l.]: Sweet Chi, 2000), 113.
[37] Ibid, 163.
[38] William R. Berk, Chinese Healing Arts: Internal Kung-Fu (Culver City, Calif: Peace Press, 1986), 170.
[39] Lorge, Chinese Martial Arts, 192.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Stanley E. Henning, “Chinese General Yue Fei: Martial Arts Facts, Tales, and Mysteries,” JAMA 15 (4) (2006): 32


Berk, William R. Chinese Healing Arts: Internal Kung-Fu. Culver City, Calif: Peace Press, 1986.

Des Forges, Roger V. Cultural Centrality and Political Change in Chinese History: Northeast Henan in the Fall of the Ming. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2003.

Dudgeon, John. The Beverages of the Chinese Kung-Fu; or, Tauist Medical Gymnastics; the Population of China; a Modern Chinese Anatomist; and a Chapter in Chinese Surgery. Tientsin: Tientsin Press, 1895.

Esherick, Joseph. The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Graff, David Andrew. Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300-900. London: Routledge, 2002.

Green, Thomas A. Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2001.

Hammond, Kenneth James. The Human Tradition in Premodern China. Wilmington, Del: Scholarly Resources, 2002.

Henning, Stanley E. “Chinese General Yue Fei: Martial Arts Facts, Tales, and Mysteries.” JAMA 15 (4) (2006): 31-35.

Kennedy, Brian, and Elizabeth Guo, Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey. Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books, 2005.

Kaizuka, Shigeki. Confucius: His Life and Thought. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2002.

Liu, James T. C. "Yueh Fei (1103-41) and China's Heritage of Loyalty." The Journal of Asian Studies. Vol. 31, No. 2 (Feb., 1972), 291-297.

Lorge, Peter Allan. Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Pu, Songling, and John Minford. Strange tales from a Chinese studio. London: Penguin, 2006.

Shahar, Meir. The Shaolin Monastery History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2008.

Twitchett, Denis Crispin, and Frederick W. Mote. The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I and II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Twitchett, Denis Crispin. The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, Part I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Wile, Douglas. Tai Chi's Ancestors: The Making of an Internal Martial Art. [S.l.]: Sweet Chi, 2000.

Wu, Jingzi, and Yang Hsien yi. The Scholars. Peking: Foreign languages press, 1957.

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