Academics who became national heads of state and/or national heads of government?

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
19,963
SoCal
#1
Which academics became national heads of state and/or national heads of government later on?

As of right now, I can think of Woodrow Wilson (who was President of Princeton University and who later became President of the United States) and Ashraf Ghani (who was Chancellor of Kabul University and who later became President of Afghanistan), but exactly which other academics qualify for this?

Also, exactly which academics came close to becoming national heads of state and/or national heads of government later on but ultimately failed to do this?

As of right now, I can think of Charles Evans Hughes (who was a professor at Cornell Law School and later narrowly lost the 1916 U.S. Presidential election to Woodrow Wilson), but exactly which other academics qualify for this?

Any thoughts on any of this?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
19,963
SoCal
#4
Also, @Dave1967 and others: Do you know of anyone else who would qualify for this? Also, what about someone else who came close to doing this (like Charles Evans Hughes did) but who ultimately failed to do this?
 
Dec 2011
4,808
Iowa USA
#6
Would Vaclav Havel of Czechoslovakia be sufficiently academic for the list?

Also, during the mid-1990s a small number of American economists, primarily academic if memory serves correctly, were entrusted in the issuance of founding stock/voting stock for many Russian state-owned enterprises. Yeltsin and advisers seemingly made a judgement of trust in academia for high stakes.
 

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