Africans Invented steel

Apr 2017
There were some stories about Celts having to straighten out their swords after becoming bent in battle, indicating their iron swords were soft. Some think tales like this may have been essentially propoganda by Roman writers, since tne Celts also had the reputation for making good swords too.

But perhaps the conflict between tne two stories abiut the quality of Celtic swords was a matter of time - perhaps the quality of Celtic swords improved over time, starting off with soft wrougnt iron swords, and later learning to add carbon and heat treat and cool them to make good steel swords. The Celts were accomplished iron workers, and no reason to assume their technology remained stagnant.

Or it could be that the Celts tnat Polybius talked about just got a bad batch of swords. Analysis of medieval swords reveal a great range in quality, some were essentially wrought iron, and others like the Uthbrecht swords, as hard as a katana. Even Roman iron swords exhibit a wide range of properties. It isn't until the later middle ages you start seeing swords witn mostly consistent metal properties

Swords bending after battle was not uncommon even if the steel was good. This is mostly due to design rather than the quality of the steel. Roman gladius because it is a short stabbing weapon is unlikely to bend. Celtic swords will bend after prolong battle

Dan Howard

Ad Honorem
Aug 2014
Celtic swords will bend after prolong battle
I've already said that we have at least one surviving La Tene sword that can be flexed almost double and spring back to its original shape. They weren't all made from spring steel but some definitely were. All of the relevant data is in Pleiner's book.
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May 2018
On earth.
Maybe I misunderstand your question, but what do you mean "there was no further development of societies after the development of iron tools."

Despite the fact that the only true "era" stepup from revolving around iron and steel in a pre-industrial society is, well, industrializing, which only really happened once, then spread, there was further societal advancement. Empires rose and fell. Cultures birthed and died. Languages changed, people migrated, wars were had, prayers done, etc.
Aug 2018
Iron making sites at Telmut in Niger (west Africa) date to 1200 BC
What's the evidence for that? everything I've seen indicates that metallurgy starts in subsaharan africa around 500 BC (Ethiopia might be an exception to this, I don't know). They went straight from the stone age to the iron age, apparently.