Akhenaten (Box, Carter Archive 001K)

Ayrton

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
2,861
Bendigo
That's a recent discovery. There are the cartouches of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten on seal impressions at Tell El-Borg [for accuracy I note, and I correct myself, that the right Arab word is "tell" not "tel"]. This means that those goods arrived there during the reign of that Monarch.

Now ... the seals show [as it's obvious] the Throne Name Ankhkheperure. How can we be sure it was Neferneferuaten? Because we've got a seal showing Ankhkheperure Mey Waenre ... and we do know who was that woman ... [object TBO II, 37]. But the "smoking gun" was a find showing Neferneferuaten Akhet en-yes [TBO 565].

Those supplies came from the headquarters of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. No doubt.
Excellent stuff. And for me ‘Akhet en hyes’ days: My husband is still alive and I am his Coregent!

And like in Pairi’s tomb, it shows Nefertiti acting independently of Akhenaten while he is still alive! So did Amenophis III withdraw into his own divinity, and so his son, the same behaviour!?
 

AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
24,138
Lago Maggiore, Italy
Excellent stuff. And for me ‘Akhet en hyes’ days: My husband is still alive and I am his Coregent!

And like in Pairi’s tomb, it shows Nefertiti acting independently of Akhenaten while he is still alive! So did Amenophis III withdraw into his own divinity, and so his son, the same behaviour!?
The suspect is licit. He had built his own private Holy Land [Akhetaten] and it doesn't seem he was often around, out of the territory delimited by the boundary stelae. Frankly speaking, even if we cannot exclude this, we have seen that his activity at Thebes is at least doubtful.

We could follow a hypothesis, which makes some sense:

* at the beginning of the coregency between Nebmaatre Amenhotep and Neferkheperure Amenhotep,
Amenhotep III had Tiye as Great Royal Wife, Amenhotep IV had Ma'at, no GRW around [there was Kiya as wife ...]

* In Year 5 Amenhotep IV moves to Akhetaten under construction, Nefertiti appears as GRW, Amenhotep IV becomes Akhenaten and Nefertiti acquires that "Neferneferuaten"
* Tiye reaches the son at Akhetaten and Amenhotep III, at Thebes [in the palace at Malkata], takes his daughter Sitamun as Great Royal Wife to substitute Tiye in the rituals
* Around Year 9 Nebmaatre Amenhotep is deified and Akhenaten develops his idea of the Aten and gives a new stimulus to Atenism
* Around Year 12 Nebmaatre Amenhotep dies [or a bit before], Nefertiti becomes coregent as Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten
* Akhenaten follows the example of the father and leaves to Neferneferuaten the material government of the country
* After the death of Akhenaten, or when he was totally isolated in his own city, Neferneferuaten begins to get in touch again with the traditional cults
[doing, thinking well, the contrary of what Akhenaten did in Year 9, taking advantage from the condition of the father]
 

Ayrton

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
2,861
Bendigo
The suspect is licit. He had built his own private Holy Land [Akhetaten] and it doesn't seem he was often around, out of the territory delimited by the boundary stelae. Frankly speaking, even if we cannot exclude this, we have seen that his activity at Thebes is at least doubtful.

We could follow a hypothesis, which makes some sense:

* at the beginning of the coregency between Nebmaatre Amenhotep and Neferkheperure Amenhotep,
Amenhotep III had Tiye as Great Royal Wife, Amenhotep IV had Ma'at, no GRW around [there was Kiya as wife ...]

* In Year 5 Amenhotep IV moves to Akhetaten under construction, Nefertiti appears as GRW, Amenhotep IV becomes Akhenaten and Nefertiti acquires that "Neferneferuaten"
* Tiye reaches the son at Akhetaten and Amenhotep III, at Thebes [in the palace at Malkata], takes his daughter Sitamun as Great Royal Wife to substitute Tiye in the rituals
* Around Year 9 Nebmaatre Amenhotep is deified and Akhenaten develops his idea of the Aten and gives a new stimulus to Atenism
* Around Year 12 Nebmaatre Amenhotep dies [or a bit before], Nefertiti becomes coregent as Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten
* Akhenaten follows the example of the father and leaves to Neferneferuaten the material government of the country
* After the death of Akhenaten, or when he was totally isolated in his own city, Neferneferuaten begins to get in touch again with the traditional cults
[doing, thinking well, the contrary of what Akhenaten did in Year 9, taking advantage from the condition of the father]
Not proven, but certainly all very sound and I think my preferred route of events. Add Nefertiti taking the nomen ‘Smenkhkare’* as part of her (possibly ongoing) rapprochement with Maat, and another dot is added.

Smenkhkare is deposed though.... but by whom? Not Ay or Paatenemheb (Horemheb) in my view. (Will get back to offer ideas on Ay and Paatenemheb/Horemheb soon, but I need to go back and check a couple of things again first...)


*Amenophis to Akhenaten. Neferneferuaten to Smenkhkare. Neferkheperure Amenophis took a definite step in one direction, toward Chaos, it appears, and then his successor turned around and took a step back toward Law(Maat).
 

Ayrton

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
2,861
Bendigo
I will present a round of name gaming...

Ankhkheperure Neferneferutaen
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperure
Djeserkheperure Horemheb

1. Why does Smenkhkare reuse Neferneferuaten’s Throne Name. Answer: ‘she’ doesn’t. ‘She’ just changes her nomen.

2. Why does Horemheb reuse Djeserkheperure, borrowed from Nefertiti, but as a Throne Name? Have no idea, but suspect he would not have if he saw Nefertiti negatively. Maybe he valued her efforts to maintain a semblance of Maat even while Akhenaten was carrying out his depredations? My thought: Horemheb was a loyalist... to Akhenaten, then Nefertiti (Ankhkheperure) then TutankhAten-Amun. Yes, he came to renounce Akhenaten, but he was an Atenist, at least in Name (Paatenemheb) while Akhenaten was alive, and for some time after too, I suspect.
 

AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
24,138
Lago Maggiore, Italy
I will present a round of name gaming...

Ankhkheperure Neferneferutaen
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperure
Djeserkheperure Horemheb

1. Why does Smenkhkare reuse Neferneferuaten’s Throne Name. Answer: ‘she’ doesn’t. ‘She’ just changes her nomen.

2. Why does Horemheb reuse Djeserkheperure, borrowed from Nefertiti, but as a Throne Name? Have no idea, but suspect he would not have if he saw Nefertiti negatively. Maybe he valued her efforts to maintain a semblance of Maat even while Akhenaten was carrying out his depredations? My thought: Horemheb was a loyalist... to Akhenaten, then Nefertiti (Ankhkheperure) then TutankhAten-Amun. Yes, he came to renounce Akhenaten, but he was an Atenist, at least in Name (Paatenemheb) while Akhenaten was alive, and for some time after too, I suspect.
Actually Horemheb did something slightly different.

Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperu
Djeserkheperure
Horemheb

In this case Ra is not in the epithet of Smenkhkare ... it's "Djeserkheperu" and it was the epithet of the Birth Name of Smenkhkare. It means "is Holy in Forms". Being an epithet, it was quite personal [like Waenre for Akhenaten]. Horemheb hadn't Ra in his Birth Name [Son of Ra], using Djeserkheperure he showed to want to keep a connection with the predecessor, adding Ra [so Ra is Holy in Forms].
 

Ayrton

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
2,861
Bendigo
Actually Horemheb did something slightly different.

Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperu
Djeserkheperure
Horemheb

In this case Ra is not in the epithet of Smenkhkare ... it's "Djeserkheperu" and it was the epithet of the Birth Name of Smenkhkare. It means "is Holy in Forms". Being an epithet, it was quite personal [like Waenre for Akhenaten]. Horemheb hadn't Ra in his Birth Name [Son of Ra], using Djeserkheperure he showed to want to keep a connection with the predecessor, adding Ra [so Ra is Holy in Forms].
My mistake. With AnkhkheperuRe and SmenkhkaRe maybe yet another ‘Re’ was thought kind of redundant? The use of Djeser Kheperu seems pointed to me. It does not seem the actions of a man who would revile a predecessor who he must hsv3 k own very well. Paatenemheb was surely a high official under AnkhkheperuRe Smenkhkhare. If he wanted to distance himself from her (?), why use her (?) epithet as substantially the basis of his Throne Name?

...

I return yet again to KV35YL. Why was she murdered? Who she was and what her ‘crime’ was is of course key. Has to be.

The best candidates?

1. A woman who had the temerity to ‘do a Hatshetsup’.
2. A Queen who sent out for a Hittite Prince. [This story seems so bizarre, the more I think on it, the more I think it could actually be true. Why make up a tale like that?] But why would the mother of the royal heir (Tut) seek a Hittite Prince as husband?
 

AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
24,138
Lago Maggiore, Italy
My mistake. With AnkhkheperuRe and SmenkhkaRe maybe yet another ‘Re’ was thought kind of redundant? The use of Djeser Kheperu seems pointed to me. It does not seem the actions of a man who would revile a predecessor who he must hsv3 k own very well. Paatenemheb was surely a high official under AnkhkheperuRe Smenkhkhare. If he wanted to distance himself from her (?), why use her (?) epithet as substantially the basis of his Throne Name?

...

I return yet again to KV35YL. Why was she murdered? Who she was and what her ‘crime’ was is of course key. Has to be.

The best candidates?

1. A woman who had the temerity to ‘do a Hatshetsup’.
2. A Queen who sent out for a Hittite Prince. [This story seems so bizarre, the more I think on it, the more I think it could actually be true. Why make up a tale like that?] But why would the mother of the royal heir (Tut) seek a Hittite Prince as husband?
There was a natural heir ... Tutankhaten ...

Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, to become coregent, had to be indicated by the original Horo [her husband, Ankhenaten]. But ... , after the death of Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten decided to become someone else ... did the Court recognize her power to do this? Or they thought that she was an "issue" of the husband?

We could even be observing a typical case of homicide within the walls of a religious community. From an external perspective the reasons of the assassination can look absurd, but they make sense for the members of that community.
 

Ayrton

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
2,861
Bendigo
There was a natural heir ... Tutankhaten ...

Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, to become coregent, had to be indicated by the original Horo [her husband, Ankhenaten]. But ... , after the death of Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten decided to become someone else ... did the Court recognize her power to do this? Or they thought that she was an "issue" of the husband?

We could even be observing a typical case of homicide within the walls of a religious community. From an external perspective the reasons of the assassination can look absurd, but they make sense for the members of that community.
I keep pondering motives for murder of Nefertiri (if she is KV35YL).

1. A religious Atenist fanatic not liking her softness for the old (heathen?) religion.

2. Someone who did not recognise her as a legitimate horo due to her gender, and with Hatshetsup a bad reminder for some. If she had nonroyal staus at all, it is hard for me to see her becoming Coregent, even to a peculiar Pharaoh. Her grab for power would have seemed nonsensical to me if she was a commoner. A female commoner? Who could possibly thought it a good idea to back her? Surely the likes of Meryre II had more sense than that!

3. Ay for reasons of his own. But if KV35YL I think it likely Ay moved her along with Tiye from Akhenaten’s (now tainted) presence. (Citing Stephen Cross’s Flood as occurring just after Tut’s demise and contemporary with Ay moving the mummies).

4. Horemheb. But I can’t see him. Ay seems closer to the throne IMO and would have dealt with him early on after Akhenaten’s death, unless both were involved.

5. It was not a murder after all. A kick in the face by a horse, or death in some military activity. Maybe it was during a proposed military activity, on the road to Syria to reimpose Kemet power, when she had an accident involving a horse?

Actually, 5 ticks a few boxes for me. It would be in line with my hypothesis that she was trying to reestablish the Dynasty as a traditional monarchy. Upholding Maat and being a fighting horo. Two important factors, especially for a woman who would be a Horo. I keep thinking about Smenkhkhare rewarding Meryre II in the field. Was this scene painted not long before Nefertiti prepared to lead troops northward? The Smenkhkhare-Meritaten scene was unfinished though. Could this mean both fied before Nefertiti could lead troops into battle, or very early after starting an action? Is Meryre II sighted again after Smenkhkhare disappeared?

5 also alllows for both Ay and Paatenemheb to remain loyal to Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare. Indeed, was it the death of Nefertiti that made Ay and Paatenemheb finally decide just how much a mess Akhenaten’s religious zealotry had caused!? Smenkhkare had tried to restore the old ways, just as Tut and Ay and Horemheb did; but I think we need to be careful about deciding when the ‘set’ against the Atenist religion per se occurred. Perhaps for many years, the idea was to have a local cult at Akhetaten and the capital as well, while still supporting all the other cults and cult centres. Maybe exactly as Amenophis III (a fan of Aten, but not a fanatic, still very much a respecter of other gods - a Solomon type, it suddenly occurs to me to say) had intended before Akhetaten took things far too far!?



Edit: A sudden thought - while contemplating Corvidius’ hypothesis that’s Smenkhkhare is a male and was the mummy in KV55.... Could Smenkhkare be a son of Akhenaten and Nefertiti? Is it possible that the reuse of the throne name, Ankhkheperure, was the choice of a devoted son? This could make KV35YL Meritaten.... i must do some sums...
 
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AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
24,138
Lago Maggiore, Italy
In what happens after the death of Akhenaten we should note that there was something odd ...

* first of all, there was a natural heir: Tutankhaten.
Question: if Smenkhkare was Nefertiti, why didn't she become regent for or coregent with the step-son [or son?] like Hatshepsut did with Thutmose III?
The age of the little Tut wasn't a problem ... Hatshepsut became coregent of Thutmose III when he was around 2 ...

So, or Smenkhkare had no intention to ensure the existence of the dynasty of Akhenaten [and this could be a reason to kill him/her for who wanted that Ma'at got respected giving the Crowns to the natural heir], or he/she died before that a coregency with Tut started. Probably this didn't happen as soon as Akhenaten died because of the name of Tutankhaten. As for I can know, only a Monarch can change his own Birth Name [I'm not aware of cases when the Court imposed to a Horo to change the Son of Ra Name]. May be even an other Horo wasn't allowed by Ma'at to do that ...

This would have generated a little problem: Smenkhkare didn't want a coregency with Tutankh-Aten, but if Tut didn't became Horo he wasn't able to change his Birth Name.

We should remind that on the Golden Throne we can see Tutankhaten ... The Court was ready to welcome an other Atenist Monarch ... [Carter Archive, object no. 91, notes about inscriptions Griffith Institute: Carter Archives - 091-08; and even the later cartouches of the Aten are present ... Griffith Institute: Carter Archives - 091-09].

If the palace knew [and it's obvious] about the existence of a natural heir, there was a situation which wasn't that easy to manage politically. Why Tut wasn't on a throne next to Smenkhkare?

This is a point we need to reason about and to add to our investigation: which was the reason why Smenkhkare didn't begin a coregency with the young Tut?
 

AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
24,138
Lago Maggiore, Italy
If we go back to a standard succession ...

the reason why there was no urgency to put Tutankhaten on the throne may be was that there was an other natural heir who preceded him in the line of succession. In this perspective Smenkhkare could have been the eldest brother of Tut, but actually not a younger brother of Akhenaten. Like Amenhotep IV - Akhenaten substituted his eldest brother as successor, if Smenkhkare was his younger brother he would have been a natural heir ... but being Tut already alive, Tut would have surpassed him.

To come before of Tut, Smenkhkare had to be his eldest son, that is to say a son of Akhenaten.
 

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