Alexander the Great in the Old Testament.

Jul 2017
842
Crete
#11
They are obviously referring to the Helots
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helots

They were known as 'slaves to the utmost' , also known as 'Perioeci
from 'περί oikos' ( dwelling around ) whom dwelt around the Eurotas
River.

The name 'Eurotas ' , the Greek 'U' is actually pronounced /F/, thus the name
would actually sound like Euphrates. The First time, the name 'Hebrew' appears
in the Old Testament, is Gen 14:13.

'Abram the Hebrew' , but in the Septuagint, it is ' Αβραμ τῷ περάτῃ '
or 'Abram the Perate'

Gen 14:14
And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his 'trained servants', born in his own house

'trained servant' in the Hebrew is 'חָנִיךְ' ( chaniyk ) which derives from Gk καινίζω (Kainizo ) , meaning 'Make new', but the Septuagint translates the name 'ἴδιος' (Idios) meaning 'one's own / pertaining to oneself.

The name 'עֵבֶר' ( Eber ) , the root word of Hebrew, in the Septuagint, it is written
'Obed' , meaning 'Serfs' , as in Helots

Spartans had there own dialect of Greek, for example 'σδ = ζ' , thus Zeus is 'Zdeus'

Gen 35:11
And God said unto him, I am God Almighty 'שַׁדַּי פְּרֵה' ( AL ZDI ) , literally means 'O Zeus'.

Gen 14:19
Abram of the most high God
'אֵל עֶלְיֹון' ( Al Olion ) in Gk is 'Ὑπερίων ἥλιος' 'Helios Hyperion'
 

Bart Dale

Ad Honorem
Dec 2009
7,095
#12
Here is the most direct reference to Greeks in the Old Testament, in Obadiah

Oba 1:20
And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south

'Sephared' , according to strongs, is an unknown place of a foreign derivation , it is in fact a transliteration of the
name 'Σπάρτα,' ( Sparta ), in Hebrew, they would remove the vowels, thus it's written 'SPRT' ( סְפָרַד). 
There is no evidence the Spartans were ever in the middle east by themselves, and no archaeological evidence supports the Spartans (as opposed to the Greeks under Alexander) ever being in the Palestine.

And the text said that Jerusalem was in Sepherad, which means Sepherad couldn't be the same as Spartan, since we all know Jersalem is not in Greece,



Book of Maccabees I 12:20-23
It has been discovered in records regarding the Spartans and Jews that they are brothers, and of the race of Abraham

Abraham is a Greek name, 'εὕρημα' (ebrhma) meaning Discovery
Greek Word Study Tool
The Maccabees was written after the conquest of Alexander, and is the story about the successful revolt of the Jews against a successor of Alexander.

And Abraham is not a Greek name, it nevers shows up as a Greek name until after the christianization of the Greeks. The "ham" is clearly a Semitic origin, and Abraham is mostly certainly a Semetic name, meaning "father of multitude", the "ham" being the derived I read from the Hebrew word hamon, meaning ,ultitude.
 
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Bart Dale

Ad Honorem
Dec 2009
7,095
#13
They are obviously referring to the Helots
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helots

They were known as 'slaves to the utmost' , also known as 'Perioeci
from 'περί oikos' ( dwelling around ) whom dwelt around the Eurotas
River.

The name 'Eurotas ' , the Greek 'U' is actually pronounced /F/, thus the name
would actually sound like Euphrates. The First time, the name 'Hebrew' appears
in the Old Testament, is Gen 14:13. 
The Greek name for the Euphrates is likely derived from a Semitic word, (Aramaic, being the language of the Persian empire) so naturally it would be similar to the also semitic Hebrew word for the Euphrates


'Abram the Hebrew' , but in the Septuagint, it is ' Αβραμ τῷ περάτῃ 'or 'Abram the Perate' 
All scholars ackowledge the Septuagint is merely a Greek translation of the Hebrew,


Gen 14:14
And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his 'trained servants', born in his own house

'trained servant' in the Hebrew is 'חָנִיךְ' ( chaniyk ) which derives from Gk καινίζω (Kainizo ) , meaning 'Make new', but the Septuagint translates the name 'ἴδιος' (Idios) meaning 'one's own / pertaining to oneself. 
It is possible that the Hebrew word was borrowed fron the Greek, but it proves acrually nothing about Alexander being in the OT. The Philistines are speculated to be related to Greeks, and so is nothing unusually about Hebrew borrowing words from Greek. But borrowing words from Greek has no relation to saying Alexander is in the OT - words could have been borrowed from Greek by Hebrew via trade long before Alexander was born.



Spartans had there own dialect of Greek, for example 'σδ = ζ' , thus Zeus is 'Zdeus'

Gen 35:11
And God said unto him, I am God Almighty 'שַׁדַּי פְּרֵה' ( AL ZDI ) , literally means 'O Zeus'.

Gen 14:19
Abram of the most high God
'אֵל עֶלְיֹון' ( Al Olion ) in Gk is 'Ὑπερίων ἥλιος' 'Helios Hyperion'
Almighty was a title, not a name. Just like the Jews said God Almighty, the Greeks said Zeus was "god almighty", the Hebrews were saying "O Zeus", but that Yahweh almight, just as the Greeks said Zeus was almighty. And "most high God" does not mean the same as "Helios Hyperion" - Helios was the name of a particular god who was not almighty.
 
Jul 2017
842
Crete
#14
The word 'הָמוֹן' (hmon ) as a cognate in Greek, which is 'δῆμον' meaning country or nation, the word 'εὕρημα' (Ebrhma) means discovered.

Gen 17:5 in Hebrew it is 'Abrhm ab hmon gowy nathan'

Cognitively in Greek, it is 'Ebrhma pater Dhmon ge entemnw' meaning 'father of the country-land that i engrave upon thee'

The Hebrew word Covenant 'Bhrith' (agreement) also as a cognate in Greek ''ῥήτρα' (Rhtra) meaning agreement, 'bhrith' also sound like our English word 'Write', meaning engrave upon , indeed, the name change, from 'Abrm' to 'Abrhm' can be explained in Greek, for one means 'wandered', the other means 'discovered'.

They are Spartan names in the list of High Priests of Israel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_High_Priests_of_Israel

Jason
Menelaus
Alcimus

Alcimus (Valiant) a spartan hero in mythology, but in Hebrew it is written 'אליקום' -Eliakim-
God will rise' ,whom appears in the Bible, as the son of Hilkiah (חִלְקִיָּה) from Greek 'εἵλωτες' ( Helot) meaning Serf , equating with the name 'Obed', which the Septuagint renders 'Eber' (Neh 12:20 - 1Ch 8:12) , also the name of the patronym of the Hebrews ( Gen 10:21 ), thus Hebrew = Helots , that they pun with the word 'Euphrates' , or 'Efrotas' (a river in Sparta), were the spartan dwell ( Peri) around.
 
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Jul 2017
842
Crete
#15
In Greek mythology, mentioned in Homer , they was a character known as Salmoneus, King of Elis, who founded the City of Salmone
Homer, Odyssey, Book 11, line 225

That name is explained using PIE roots, by looking at the word 'Solemn', meaning 'Feast or banquet' , cognate with 'Sollus' meaning Whole and entire and the Gk 'Olos' , which is identical in meaning with the Hebrew ' כֹּל (kōle )' ( whole ) and cognate with the Latin 'Caelus' ( Heaven), it's PIE root is -kailo , the Hebrew word for feast is 'אָכ' (KL) , that occurred just before we are introduced to King Solomon

Thus the Gk cognate is ἱεροῦ οὔλους ( Temple of Demeter )
 
Jul 2017
842
Crete
#16
I can also explain the story of Adam, Eve and Cain as an Alexandrian romance, relating to the Fall of Tyre.

First of all, the Book of Ezekiel, literally puts Eden in Lebanon

Eze 31:16
I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to hell with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comforted in the nether parts of the earth.

Ezekiel 28 to 31 is addressing 'the prince of Tyre' (Ezekiel 28:1), it talks about Eden, which is covered in Ceder trees and describes a flaming cherub, the Phoenix.

The Hebrew word for 'Phoenix' is 'קֵן' (Qan ), where we get 'קַיִן' ( Qayin ) meaning Cain, the word QAN appears in Job 29:18 ' I shall die as a Phoenix' , the Septuagint renders 'Qan' as φοίνικος ( Phoenix )

Foinikinos - Pheonicians
Knon - Canaanites

Eze 31:8 - The 'cedars' in the garden of God

Every reference to 'cedars ' in the Bible state that they come from Lebanon.

Isa 2:13 - And upon all the cedars of Lebanon
Isa 37:24 - Cedars of Lebanon
Zec 11:1 - O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars
2Sa 5:11 - King of Tyre sends Cedars to King David
Judges 9:15 - cedars of Lebanon.
1Ki 9:11 - the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees

Thus the story of Cain (Phoenicians ) being expelled from Tyre, such like in Joshua, we also
have the infamous whore of the story, an allusion to the Helen of Troy with 'Eve', as with Rehab
and 'Tamar' , which means palm-tree, it's Gk translation is 'φοινίκων' (Pheonikon)

Deuteronomy 34:3
And the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho , the city of palm trees

'City of Palm trees' literally means 'City of the Phoenicians ' .
 
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Jul 2017
842
Crete
#17
Tyre was the centre of Phoenician commerce , in fact 'כְּנַעַן' (Canaan ) is often translated
in the Bible as 'Merchant' or 'Trafficker '

Isaiah 23:8
Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city, whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers are the honourable of the earth?

In this phrase, it describes Tyre's people as 'Merchants' , in Hebrew is the word 'Canaan' because 'KNON' means Merchants, so the entire story of Joshua is allegorical of Alexander the Great expelling Merchants.
'Phoenician' can be explained in Hebrew. Job 29:18 - Then I said, I shall die as a φοίνικος ( קֵן )

I can also explains how Isaac, Jacob and Joshua are Greek names.

The name יְהוֹשׁוּע ( Joshua) is the same as יְהוֹשבע ( yeh sheh'·bah ) but also בַּת־שֶׁבַע = בַּת־שֶׁוּע , I believe the correct definition of יְהוֹשׁוּע is Pious and it is cognate with the Gk εὐσεβής Eusebus meaning Pious. The evidence for this, is the name בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע Beersheba meaning Well of Oaths, it's cognate in Greek is φρέαρ-σέβω , Prear/Beer mean Well and σέβω means Honor and Oath.

Well of Oaths φρέαρ σέβω בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע
Asbamaios, the protector of the sanctity of oaths. It was derived from a well, Asbamaeon near Tyana, in Cappadocia, the water of which was said to be beneficial and pleasant to honest persons, but pestilential to those who were guilty of perjury.

This also relates to the fountain of youth thus explaining the longevity of the Patriarchs

Fountain of Youth
When the Ichthyophagi (Fish-eaters) showed wonder at the number of the years, he led them to a fountain, wherein when they had washed, they found their flesh all glossy and sleek, as if they had bathed in oil- and a scent came from the spring like that of violets. The water was so weak, they said, that nothing would float in it, neither wood, nor any lighter substance, but all went to the bottom. If the account of this fountain be true, it would be their constant use of the water from it which makes them so long-lived - Herodotus

''ἰχθύς' (Ikt-hus) > Isaac

Ikthus in Armenian is dzouk , thus a pun with 'Zdok' ( δικαίου )

DIKAIOU > DIKAIOB > IKAIOB > יַעֲקֹב ( Jacob )

Genesis LXX
27:36 καὶ εἶπεν δικαίως ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ιακωβ

DIKAIOU > ZDKI
δικαίου (Dikaiou ) means 'observant of custom' or 'set right' , In Hebrew
It is צְדָקָה or צדקיה 'set right' or 'righteous'

צָדַק (ZD-AK ) * Set right
דָּגָה (D-AG ) * Fish - דָּגָה (Dagah) multiply, increase

Genesis 48:18
Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow (דָּגָה ) into a multitude in the midst of the earth.

The only verse in the entire scriptures where דָּגָה is used this way.
 
Jul 2017
842
Crete
#18
The Philistines have a bad rep in the Old Testament , but in the Book of Samuel were they prominently appear, the Greek word is ἀλλόφυλοι or ἀλλοφύλους ( Allo Puloi ) in the Septuagint.

The name 'PLSTIM' is the same as Gk 'PLSGIN' ' Pelasgians ' which means people of the Coast land , an adjective form of 'E Paralos Ge ' ( Coast Land )

ή πάραλος γῆ - e Paralos Ge
πελασ-γοί - Pelas - Goi ( Palestine / Pelasgoi )
Πελασγικός ( Pelasgikos ) = Coast land of Argos= Thessalian

The 'ἀλλόφυλοι ' in the Book of Samuel are Σκύθιον or Σκύθης or Scythian, not Palestinians, The later Masoretic text mistranslated ἀλλόφυλοι as Φυλιστιιμ

'ἀλλόφυλοι appear in Josephus mistranslated Philistines too.


Alexander the Great' Scythian War
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jaxartes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spitamenes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sogdian_Rock
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Cyropolis
 
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Jul 2017
842
Crete
#19
The people who inhabit 'Canaan' , but possibly meant 'Koinon' , thus not of a particular region.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koinon

This is from studying Ancient Greek and how they proximate in Hebrew, helped me decipher
all these names to the Greek counterparts.

Amorite - Κιμμέριοι - Cimmerian -
Kenites - φοίνιξι - Phoenician -
Gergash - Γραικόςi - Greacus -
Hittite - σκυθιά - Scythian-
Hivite - ἀχαιοί - Achaeans -
Jebusite - βοιωτοί - Boeotian -
Perizzite - φρυγίᾳ - Phrygia -
Capthori - κύπριοι - Cypriots -
Philistim - πελασγοί - Pelasgians -

Thus the closet geography of the Old Testament, can be much more open, as it is in Greek Mythology, but also
corresponding to the campaigns of Alexander the Great in other regions.

The largest ship in Greek mythology, was obviously the Argonaut and this is the inspiration of Noah's
Ark, the name 'Noah' derives from ναύτης ( Nautes ) meaning ''Sailer' .

There is an interesting passage, prior to this ' Enoch built the City of Enoch ' in Hebrew 'City of Enoch' ירחֲנוֹך is 'IRGNK' , Argonaut > ARGNT > IRGNK (רחֲנוֹך ) , that Jason used too sailed to Armenia to steal the Golden Fleece, the Hebrew word for Armenia is אֲרָרָט ( Ararat )( Isa 37:38), Big ship same destination.

The story is followed with a tablet of nations, corresponding to the whole of Alexander the Great's Asiatic empire, which divided into three , Antigonus (Japheth) Seleucus (Shem) and Ptolemy ( Ham )

Numbers 13:22
Ahiman (Antigonus) Sheshai (Seleucus) and Talmai (Ptolemy) the children of Anak ( Alexander )

The Hebraic and Aramaic name for Ptolomy is 'Talmai' and thus what is it doing so early in the Biblical chronology, in the Book of Numbers, which supposedly corresponds to the 11th-12th? Century BCE
 
Jul 2017
842
Crete
#20
What happens during conquests of nations, is that some of the military are left behind, form colonies and integrate in the culture , thus i do wonder if Alexander the Great employed Helots or Spartans, from my studying of Greek, 'Helot' and 'Hebrew' are synonymous, hence why the earliest high priests of Israel have Spartan names, such as 'Menelaus, Hilkiah (Helot ), Jason and Alcimus ( Eliakim ).

But also, in Spartan Dialect , 'O Zeus ' is ' O Zdeus' , in Hebrew it is 'אל שדי'

Gen 35:11
And God said unto him, I am Zeus

Ancient Greek, as a rule, the name of a God is always preceded by an Article
for example 'O Zeus' , this is why in Arabic, it's God is 'Allah' , with the prefix article
'AL' and the name of the deity 'ālihah , which derives from Greek 'ἠελίου' , thus
in Gk it is 'ὁ ἠελίου ( O Helios ), whom appears in Genesis 14:18 ' 'אל עליון' ( ὁ ἠέλιον).

That is why in the Septuagint, 'אל שדי is rendered ὁ(אל) θεός (שדי ) in Gen 35:11

Job 21:20
His eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink of the wrath of the Zeus.

This is a grammatically correct translation.
 
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