Ancient Pre-Roman Italy

Feb 2018
172
EU-Germany
It sounds like a disaster could be either natural or perhaps militaristic to me, but one way or another i suppose the consequences were quite severe....

I really think there must be something to the whole Bronze Age collapse as being connected to invasions and Sea People's and it being a major level event... perhaps even like a "world war zero" as some suggest...

The entire period 1500 BC to 1000 BC or so somewhere across that period it's the same sort of wave of events, anyway it's all really interesting to me.
there are signs of destruction at the terramare of gaggio but it pre-dates the overall collapse, which has such signs seemingly missing; the only thing of significance that succeeds the terramare is the major site of frattesina and the whole 'proto-villanova' phase which however by passes the major former terremare settlement area as if uninhabitable; once more plenty of connections/parallels to the balkan/danube area such as the biconical urns of the banat;

i view the bronze age collapse and the sea peoples more as a revolt of mercenaries from a prolonged conflict, maybe the trojan war is not exactly as described by homer and more an allegory of an actual broad conflict and fact is that at one point the palaces were burning across the aegean; there is a paper linked of the links between mycenae and italy and mercenaries deriving from italy, it is describing a similar pattern as mercenaries obtained by the pharaohs (based on the sherden/SRDN and nuragic sardinia);
http://www.enim-egyptologie.fr/revue/2017/2/Abbas_ENiM10_p7-23.swf.pdf
 
Feb 2018
172
EU-Germany
in adendum to #25-33
the 2011 jung et al paper revealed that north and south italian bronze age items(swords/spearheads etc.) derived from the same copper ore source, though worked from local workshops, and suggested an alpine source for the ore based on slag found at a production site near trento ruling out tuscan and sardinian mines as the provenance yet concluded (2011) One may guess that the provenance of the raw metal is to be sought in the southern Alpine copper ore deposits, but here we are clearly in need of more analytical data

update currently is that the alpine copper source(s) have since been discriminated (2014 artioli et al) and also confirming (2016 artioli et al) what jung et al suggested back in 2011 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440316301340 .....based on the discrimination of copper sources and the available analyses, most of the metal circulating in Northern Italy and in the greater Po Valley region was actually produced from Southern Alpine ores
2014 artioli et al (PDF) Prehistoric copper metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: Recent results

truly ruling out sardinia and an sardinian exchange network but undelinging the 2011 suggestion of a pan-italian north>south network p244/245 Our analyses of stratified bronze finds from different sites in the Veneto and in Lombardy provide strong evidence for the interpretation that the bronze workshops in this region received their raw material from the same copper ore deposits throughout the whole RBA and during the first two phases of the FBA ..... southern Italian bronze workshops had access to copper/bronze of the same provenance and that this metal was shipped from northern Adriatic harbor sites
 
Mar 2015
865
Europe
truly ruling out sardinia and an sardinian exchange network but undelinging the 2011 suggestion of a pan-italian north>south network p244/245 Our analyses of stratified bronze finds from different sites in the Veneto and in Lombardy provide strong evidence for the interpretation that the bronze workshops in this region received their raw material from the same copper ore deposits throughout the whole RBA and during the first two phases of the FBA ..... southern Italian bronze workshops had access to copper/bronze of the same provenance and that this metal was shipped from northern Adriatic harbor sites
Is there any evidence for harbour/water transportation, rather than overland transport?
How much was Trentino copper used on east coast of Adriatic, in Dalmatia?

Counting the 4 major attested sources of copper in Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean:
Trentino
Sardinia
Cyprus
Sinai
precisely which regions were supplied by each mine?
When did Sardinian copper begin to be exported anywhere?
Travelling, say, along the eastern bank of Adriatic from Veneto to Istria, Dalmatia, Montenegro, Albania, Epirus, Peloponnese, Crete, Caria, Cilicia, Cyprus... where did Cypriot rather than Trentine copper become prevalent?
 
Feb 2018
172
EU-Germany
update on the terramare, a new isotopes paper(plus clip) featuring mobility in two terremare sites
Flows of people in villages and large centres in Bronze Age Italy through strontium and oxygen isotopes
for fondo paviani another paper is of interest as it survived the RBA(I-II) collapse attested in the southern po valley
Resistances to the 12th century BC crisis in the Veneto region: the case studies of Fondo Paviani and Montebello Vicentino

intersting that most females(exogamy) derived from 'warmer areas' such as southern italy or aegaen/greece the latter would explain the mycenaean type/style pottery but the former goes along with this from 2009 cardarelli - During the MB3, classic Terramare deposits display marked homoge-neity throughout the territory, substantially without evidence of contamination. This is par-ticularly the case as regards elements of the peninsular Apennine Culture which appear in the Veneto region. The situation undergoes marked change during the RB, when elements from the Italian peninsular Sub-Apennine Culture, above all in regions towards the East, are much in evidence

as has been demonstrated in other papers the collapse of the terramare is heavily linked with an ecological crisis mostly caused by large scale deforestation and in conjunction with a new but now disapeared clip(presented by alberta arena) the terramare retreated into the apennines dispersing all the way into southern italy, ?new merits to the umbrian flood link; and maybe these mergers of exogamy into the adige area as well as the retreat southwards did give rise to the succeeding socalled "proto-villanova"(aka ascona-milazzo phenomenon) as previously already suggested by others; part of the the now disapeared clip also included a chronology which began with an EBAII expansion of polada/palafitte settlements into the plains and an emergence(good quantity) of sauerbrunn/boiu-type swordbearers in the MBAII phase a phase that coincides with an immense growth an increase of sites times three; a large scale migration from the carpathian-basin subjugating and superseeding the previous palafiitte-expansion was an option and i for one already subscribe to it, though only aDNA can and will figure that out conclusively in the coming future, as this phase introduces also new fundamental changes such as C4plants(millet) and the horse(xfood supply); if everything adds up then an influx of two waves of the IE speakers, explaining the discrepancies between sabellic and latin that challenges both deriving from a common node, the former influx occurring in ~1500bc and the latter in ~900bc incl venetic;
 
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Feb 2018
172
EU-Germany
the disapeared clip re-appeared (a.arena/vienna conf.)

i reckon if the terramare have any correspondance to an historical population it adds up to the umbrians(umbri/ombrii)
 
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