Ancient Pre-Roman Italy

Feb 2018
119
EU-Germany
#81
It sounds like a disaster could be either natural or perhaps militaristic to me, but one way or another i suppose the consequences were quite severe....

I really think there must be something to the whole Bronze Age collapse as being connected to invasions and Sea People's and it being a major level event... perhaps even like a "world war zero" as some suggest...

The entire period 1500 BC to 1000 BC or so somewhere across that period it's the same sort of wave of events, anyway it's all really interesting to me.
there are signs of destruction at the terramare of gaggio but it pre-dates the overall collapse, which has such signs seemingly missing; the only thing of significance that succeeds the terramare is the major site of frattesina and the whole 'proto-villanova' phase which however by passes the major former terremare settlement area as if uninhabitable; once more plenty of connections/parallels to the balkan/danube area such as the biconical urns of the banat;

i view the bronze age collapse and the sea peoples more as a revolt of mercenaries from a prolonged conflict, maybe the trojan war is not exactly as described by homer and more an allegory of an actual broad conflict and fact is that at one point the palaces were burning across the aegean; there is a paper linked of the links between mycenae and italy and mercenaries deriving from italy, it is describing a similar pattern as mercenaries obtained by the pharaohs (based on the sherden/SRDN and nuragic sardinia);
http://www.enim-egyptologie.fr/revue/2017/2/Abbas_ENiM10_p7-23.swf.pdf
 
Feb 2018
119
EU-Germany
#82
in adendum to #25-33
the 2011 jung et al paper revealed that north and south italian bronze age items(swords/spearheads etc.) derived from the same copper ore source, though worked from local workshops, and suggested an alpine source for the ore based on slag found at a production site near trento ruling out tuscan and sardinian mines as the provenance yet concluded (2011) One may guess that the provenance of the raw metal is to be sought in the southern Alpine copper ore deposits, but here we are clearly in need of more analytical data

update currently is that the alpine copper source(s) have since been discriminated (2014 artioli et al) and also confirming (2016 artioli et al) what jung et al suggested back in 2011 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440316301340 .....based on the discrimination of copper sources and the available analyses, most of the metal circulating in Northern Italy and in the greater Po Valley region was actually produced from Southern Alpine ores
2014 artioli et al (PDF) Prehistoric copper metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: Recent results

truly ruling out sardinia and an sardinian exchange network but undelinging the 2011 suggestion of a pan-italian north>south network p244/245 Our analyses of stratified bronze finds from different sites in the Veneto and in Lombardy provide strong evidence for the interpretation that the bronze workshops in this region received their raw material from the same copper ore deposits throughout the whole RBA and during the first two phases of the FBA ..... southern Italian bronze workshops had access to copper/bronze of the same provenance and that this metal was shipped from northern Adriatic harbor sites
 
Mar 2015
767
Europe
#83
truly ruling out sardinia and an sardinian exchange network but undelinging the 2011 suggestion of a pan-italian north>south network p244/245 Our analyses of stratified bronze finds from different sites in the Veneto and in Lombardy provide strong evidence for the interpretation that the bronze workshops in this region received their raw material from the same copper ore deposits throughout the whole RBA and during the first two phases of the FBA ..... southern Italian bronze workshops had access to copper/bronze of the same provenance and that this metal was shipped from northern Adriatic harbor sites
Is there any evidence for harbour/water transportation, rather than overland transport?
How much was Trentino copper used on east coast of Adriatic, in Dalmatia?

Counting the 4 major attested sources of copper in Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean:
Trentino
Sardinia
Cyprus
Sinai
precisely which regions were supplied by each mine?
When did Sardinian copper begin to be exported anywhere?
Travelling, say, along the eastern bank of Adriatic from Veneto to Istria, Dalmatia, Montenegro, Albania, Epirus, Peloponnese, Crete, Caria, Cilicia, Cyprus... where did Cypriot rather than Trentine copper become prevalent?