# Arab World Being Third World Countries

#### desi2156

Why is it that the Arab world, though made many scientific discoveries during their golden age such as algebra,tools on navigation,compasses,etc are now considered to be third world countries?

#### Lucius

Forum Staff
Originally, "Third World" meant not aligned with the United States, and not aligned with the USSR either.

Nowadays, people make up their own definitions of words.

#### analysis17456

The scientific method and the proof by induction method and hence algebra came from the Middle-East. They seem to have the most advanced number system in the world, and in algebra, many techniques involve adding 0 (the usefulness of 0).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_rule#Proofs
A classic is the derivation (hence, proof from first principle) of the essential product rule of calculus. For the first proof, at line 3, 0 was added to the equation, 0=f(x)g(x+&#916;x)-f(x)g(x+&#916;x)

In my opinion, it comes down to incompetent dynasties that wasted away the potential of the entire empire, the Ottoman Empire. That's all it takes. I would argue the same for China, that is, severely incompetent people ruining an entire empire. That's the problem with dynasties, and why it should always remain a meritocracy.

#### analysis17456

In my opinion, Europe definitely separated themselves after the likes of Leibniz and continuing to Euler and so on. Because they introduced mathematical rigor that has been long forgotten since Archimedes. It's the first step from philosophy to logic, and the result is maths.

Note, we all use Leibniz's notations due to their convenience in calculus.

Ibn al-Haytham would be nowhere near as rigorous (though he's several centuries early), but he looks hilariously like a an Islamic Newton, strong evidence for the quote "standing on the shoulders of giants".

"Alhazen discovered the sum formula for the fourth power, using a method that could be generally used to determine the sum for any integral power. He used this to find the volume of a paraboloid. He could find the integral formula for any polynomial without having developed a general formula.[103]"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_al-Haytham#CalculusTheory of optics?

Celestial mechanics? Projectile mechanics? Mechanics? Definitely sounds like an earlier Islamic Newton.

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#### analysis17456

"bn al-Haytham was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then is directed to one's eyes.[14] He was also an early proponent of the concept that a hypothesis must be proved by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence&#8212;hence understanding the scientific method five centuries before Renaissance scientists.[15][16][17][18][19][20]"

And we could take it that there was knowledge transfer to Italy considering all the mountains that blocked off Northern Europe. The Italians were the first to adopt the Arabic number system in western Europe (likely).

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#### analysis17456

"When my father, who had been appointed by his country as public notary in the customs at Bugia acting for the Pisan merchants going there, was in charge, he summoned me to him while I was still a child, and having an eye to usefulness and future convenience, desired me to stay there and receive instruction in the school of accounting. There, when I had been introduced to the art of the Indians' nine symbols through remarkable teaching, knowledge of the art very soon pleased me above all else and I came to understand it." - Fibonacci

I would suggest that, after the incompetent dynasties of the Ottoman Empire, there was an unfortunate chain of events that lead to several wars including wars in the 21st-century. That's really, really unhealthy for an academic environment.

#### Naima

Why is it that the Arab world, though made many scientific discoveries during their golden age such as algebra,tools on navigation,compasses,etc are now considered to be third world countries?
Because the Arabs never made any scientific discovery , its just a bubble story the one about islamic inventions.
In reality those have nothing to do with religion and more to do with local realities were mostly Dhimmi ( non muslim slaves ) or forced converts that translated into arab ancient greek , roman and persian texts and by those texts some local scientist under an enlightened rulership like in Andalus could prosper and develop, once the countries were fully islamized the decline started.
Arabs overseed already advanced structures made by the previous civilizations they settled in as rulers , with time with their religion the spread of technology and light of knowledge soon become smaller untill no more .

#### analysis17456

Don't forget the number system and Mr. Algebree.

#### Chlodio

Forum Staff
Is there anything to a story I heard once that early Islam was conducive to science and technology, but then circa 1100 or so Islam became more fundamentalist and hostile to science and technology?

#### analysis17456

The House of Wisdom was destroyed by the Mongols, who knows what could've been in there, calculus?

"During the reign of al-Ma'mun, astronomical observatories were set up, and the House was an unrivalled center for the study of humanities and for science in medieval Islam, including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, alchemy and chemistry, zoology, and geography and cartography."

In other words, possible calculus. Newton actually developed calculus to model the motion of celestial objects.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Wisdom

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