Architecture of the Seljuk Turks

Jan 2012
793
#31


Zoomorphic appearance sculpture is prohibited to islam (as also human appearance to art is prohibited to islam> at least for that period of 11th century), as also the motives that existed to islamic countries (to some plates etc) it is possible that have been made from local christians/no muslim artists or rarely from imported roman/byzantines or armenians. [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aniconism_in_Islam]Aniconism in Islam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

Double headed eagle, is not imported from Seljucks to Europe, as this exist before invade to Anatolia. [there also a needed research for Arsakides about it's use, and many results of aniconic muslim Seljucks 'official use' adoption from 1058 needed more research http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-headed_eagle ]

Seljucks adopted at most Iranian's artistic influence. To Asia Monor/Anatolia are known Seljuck monuments made by local Anatolian christian architects and for some specific the refer that worked christian builders/artists.

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Stone slab with Double-Headed Eagle
from Beroe ([ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stara_Zagora]Stara Zagora - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]), 10th-11th century
Red schist 72.5 Í 110 cm. Natsionalen Arkheologicheski Muzeĭ, Sofia Inv. nr.B: 854.

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Pseudo-saint Clément, Recognitiones
The Archangel Michael (killing a devil) and a monk, a two-headed eagle between the arches.This manuscript is from the time of Otto III, crowned emperor in 996 (†1002) .
Mont Saint-Michel (France) about 1000 A.D.v
Avranches, Bibliothèque Municipale ms. 50

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The double-headed eagle is an international symbol and it was actually always present in human civilization.
As symbol preexisted also to [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece]Mycenaean Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame] and to Hittites.

http://www.hellinon.net/ANEOMENA/DikefalosAetos.files/image006.jpg

MYCENAEN GOLD NECKLACE FROM TEN PLATES IN FIGURE PAIR of opposite EAGLES SYMBOL probably of power.-
MYCENAE Burial TAFIKOS V GRAVE CIRCLE A 16th CENTURY BC NUMBER INV. 689 W NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS

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As 'Temple of time' refer : The oldest double-headed eagle symbol can be found in the archaeological remains of the Hittite civilization.

======================

Gökmedrese in Sivas (Sevastia)





Gökmedrese or Gök Medrese (literally: "Sky Madrasah" or "Blue Madrasah"), aka Sahibiye Medresesi, is a 13th-century medrese, an Islamic educational institution, in Sivas(Sevastia), Turkey. [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sivas]Sivas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

The medrese was commissioned by Sahip Ata Fahrettin Ali, a vizier and the de facto ruler of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm after the death of Pervane in 1277.
Up to 1271, he was usually in good terms with Pervane. He commissioned many buildings in Anatolia.
Gökmedrese is one of the most imposing of all. The original name of the medrese is Sahibiye, referring to Sahip Ata. But it is usually known as Gökmedrese, because of the sky-blue tiles used at the building.

The medrese was constructed by then 78 year old architect of Armenian origin, named "Kaluyan of Konya" (Konya was the capital of Seljukids.) Originally, it was a two storey building. Gökmedrese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

more photos

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And a modern Miniature (a smaller size reconstruction) of Sivas (Sevastia) Gökmedrese from Miniatürk

Miniatürk or Turkey Miniature Park in Turkey mock-up of the various works exhibited in the 60000 metrekareyl is the world's largest miniature park area was established. Miniatürk, built on former parkland located on the shores of the Golden Horn, was opened to visitors on May 2, 2003. Miniatürk is designed as an open air museum. Park entrance is a little low. Input, a high platform provides an opportunity to observe the entire park from above. Right-entry platform with the help of a ramp from the twisty park is reached. Currently 105 works are on display in the park. These historic buildings and structures are collections selected from Turkey. Park's (based on the input) in the upper left is also mentioned in several buildings from around the world. Not standing today, Temple of Artemis Mausoleum of Halicarnassus that day as well as some structures were built according to a forecast.



Miniatürk is a miniature park situated at the north-eastern shore of the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It was opened May 2, 2003. Miniatürk covers a total area of ​​60,000 m2. It is one of the World's Largest parks with miniature models of its 15.000 m2 area. Miniatürk has 40,000 m2 of open space, covered area of ​​3,500 m2, 2,000 m2 of pools and waterways, and a parking lot with a capacity of 500 vehicles.
The park contains 105 models done in 1/25th scale. 45 of the structures are from Istanbul, 45 are from Anatolia, and 15 are from the Ottoman territories that today lie outside of Turkey. Also featured are historic structures like the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus and the Mausoleum of Mausolus at Halicarnassus (now Bodrum). Additional space was reserved for potential future models. Panoramio - Photo of Sivas, Gök Medrese

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Last edited:
Apr 2013
1,570
İslambol
#32


Zoomorphic appearance sculpture is prohibited to islam (as also human appearance to art is prohibited to islam> at least for that period of 11th century), as also the motives that existed to islamic countries (to some plates etc) it is possible that have been made from local christians/no muslim artists or rarely from imported roman/byzantines or armenians. Aniconism in Islam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Double headed eagle, is not imported from Seljucks to Europe, as this exist before invade to Anatolia. [there also a needed research for Arsakides about it's use, and many results of aniconic muslim Seljucks 'official use' adoption from 1058 needed more research Double-headed eagle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]

Seljucks adopted at most Iranian's artistic influence. To Asia Monor/Anatolia are known Seljuck monuments made by local Anatolian christian architects and for some specific the refer that worked christian builders/artists.

-------------------------------



Stone slab with Double-Headed Eagle
from Beroe (Stara Zagora - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), 10th-11th century
Red schist 72.5 Í 110 cm. Natsionalen Arkheologicheski Muzeĭ, Sofia Inv. nr.B: 854.

-------------------------------------



Pseudo-saint Clément, Recognitiones
The Archangel Michael (killing a devil) and a monk, a two-headed eagle between the arches.This manuscript is from the time of Otto III, crowned emperor in 996 (†1002) .
Mont Saint-Michel (France) about 1000 A.D.v
Avranches, Bibliothèque Municipale ms. 50

--------------------------------

The double-headed eagle is an international symbol and it was actually always present in human civilization.
As symbol preexisted also to Mycenaean Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and to Hittites.

http://www.hellinon.net/ANEOMENA/DikefalosAetos.files/image006.jpg

MYCENAEN GOLD NECKLACE FROM TEN PLATES IN FIGURE PAIR of opposite EAGLES SYMBOL probably of power.-
MYCENAE Burial TAFIKOS V GRAVE CIRCLE A 16th CENTURY BC NUMBER INV. 689 W NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS

--------

As 'Temple of time' refer : The oldest double-headed eagle symbol can be found in the archaeological remains of the Hittite civilization.

======================

Gökmedrese in Sivas (Sevastia)





Gökmedrese or Gök Medrese (literally: "Sky Madrasah" or "Blue Madrasah"), aka Sahibiye Medresesi, is a 13th-century medrese, an Islamic educational institution, in Sivas(Sevastia), Turkey. Sivas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The medrese was commissioned by Sahip Ata Fahrettin Ali, a vizier and the de facto ruler of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm after the death of Pervane in 1277.
Up to 1271, he was usually in good terms with Pervane. He commissioned many buildings in Anatolia.
Gökmedrese is one of the most imposing of all. The original name of the medrese is Sahibiye, referring to Sahip Ata. But it is usually known as Gökmedrese, because of the sky-blue tiles used at the building.

The medrese was constructed by then 78 year old architect of Armenian origin, named "Kaluyan of Konya" (Konya was the capital of Seljukids.) Originally, it was a two storey building. Gökmedrese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

more photos

-----------------


And a modern Miniature (a smaller size reconstruction) of Sivas (Sevastia) Gökmedrese from Miniatürk

Miniatürk or Turkey Miniature Park in Turkey mock-up of the various works exhibited in the 60000 metrekareyl is the world's largest miniature park area was established. Miniatürk, built on former parkland located on the shores of the Golden Horn, was opened to visitors on May 2, 2003. Miniatürk is designed as an open air museum. Park entrance is a little low. Input, a high platform provides an opportunity to observe the entire park from above. Right-entry platform with the help of a ramp from the twisty park is reached. Currently 105 works are on display in the park. These historic buildings and structures are collections selected from Turkey. Park's (based on the input) in the upper left is also mentioned in several buildings from around the world. Not standing today, Temple of Artemis Mausoleum of Halicarnassus that day as well as some structures were built according to a forecast.



Miniatürk is a miniature park situated at the north-eastern shore of the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It was opened May 2, 2003. Miniatürk covers a total area of ​​60,000 m2. It is one of the World's Largest parks with miniature models of its 15.000 m2 area. Miniatürk has 40,000 m2 of open space, covered area of ​​3,500 m2, 2,000 m2 of pools and waterways, and a parking lot with a capacity of 500 vehicles.
The park contains 105 models done in 1/25th scale. 45 of the structures are from Istanbul, 45 are from Anatolia, and 15 are from the Ottoman territories that today lie outside of Turkey. Also featured are historic structures like the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus and the Mausoleum of Mausolus at Halicarnassus (now Bodrum). Additional space was reserved for potential future models. Panoramio - Photo of Sivas, Gök Medrese

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This kind of habitual hodgepodge of yours is annoying. You are always trying to instil rotten Greek Orthodox Propaganda by means of unreliable Wikipedia articles. You ludicrously try to equate everything (even the Seljuk Turks' art !) with East Roma (so called Byzantium) or Christianity and you are ruining the threads of other members with this kind of butthurt attitude of yours.

Beside, how many times do we have to tell you that the Hittites and the other ancient peoples of Anatolia had ethnically nothing in common with East Roma and the sea peoples coming from the other side of the Aegean sea, destroying the civilizations of the Anatolian people.

This thread is not about the double headed eagle emblem, that has been used by many empires from East to West.

You turned a blind eye on my previous quotes :

[...] On the side of the north-eastern portal is carved the twin-headed eagle, which was a Seljuk emblem before it reached Europe [...]

[...] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, Sans]but it is certainly not correct to say that the Seljuk Turks adopted it from the ruins of Euyuk, for Tatar coins antedating the occupation of the Asia Minor country by the Seljuks have been found.[/FONT] [...]



I can quote more academical sources than your beloved Wikipedia fed by butthurt greek/armenian propagandists :

University of Wisconsin

http://www.uwlax.edu/urc/jur-online/PDF/2011/chariton.ARC.pdf

[...]
The Hittites
The period from the 19th-18th centuries BCE is referred to as the Assyrian Colony period, during which the Assyrians set up trading posts to gain raw materials from Anatolia (Macqueen 2003:18). This was a peaceful period; the Anatolians prospered, and the Assyrian traders took Anatolian wives (Macqueen 2003:19). After some new
population migrations, and the Old and Middle Kingdom periods, the Hittite Empire flourished during the 14th-12th centuries BCE. The influx of new people, with the “resistance to syncretization,” resulted in the Hittite pantheon having very many deities, and Hittite religion having influences from many sources (Beckman 1989:99). The fall of the kingdom was related, either directly or indirectly, to the so-called Sea Peoples (Beckman 2007:111). The Hittites apparently engaged in falconry (Canby 2002). This is evident from texts and from imagery from various sources, including those portraying a double-headed eagle (“hawk”) described below. Images of falconry include portrayals of the lituus (Hittite: kalmus), an implement for hunting hares (Canby 2002:170).
[...]

Now read carefully the following quote from the same source above :

[...] Prior to its use in the Byzantine period, the double-headed eagle had been used by the Seljuk Turks and others [...]



The Seljuk Turks emigrating from Central Asia occupied Baghdad in 1055 and Tougrul captured Mosul, and upon returning to Baghdad in 1058 was given the title of the '’King of the East and West'’. The Seljuks were even more anxious to have their rule legitimized: seen as aliens they were unpopular with the townsfolk of Persia and Iraq, and Tougrul's investiture by the Caliph in 1058, in a magnificent ceremony during which two crowns were held over his head as symbols of his regal authority over East and West, confirmed that the he now was the Commander of the Faithful. At the time the double-headed eagle became his and The Seljuk State’s coat of arms and flag, one head symbolizing the east and the other one symbolizing the west. As the Seljuk Empire’s insignia, the twin-headed eagle appears in Turkish coins from 11th century and onwards as well as a number of architectural remains scattered in central and east Anatolia.

Now in regard to Seljuk Architectures. They are many famous Seljuk Architects : Bedrettin Tebrizi, Bedrettin Yavaş, Aynüddevle, Kaluyan, Hacı el-Mevlevi and many others. Kalukyan was an Armernian who converted to Islam. His signature was " amel-i Kelük bin Abdullah " He adopted and spread Seljuk Architecture, not the Georgian/Armenian style of Architecture.

http://www.turkiyat.selcuk.edu.tr/pdfdergi/s24/ozluk.pdf


Every architecture has some similarities and influences from other architectures. But each architecture has some distinct features : a recognisable style. Seldjuk Architecture has its own identity that has little to do with old persian architecture (like in Persepolis).


FEATURES OF SELJUK ARCHITECTURE

- The distinguishing characteristic of Seljuk architecture is the monumental portal, built of stone, ornately decorated in a wide variety of techniques. These portals extend outward from the facade. The entrance gate is surmounted by a triangular arch filled with elaborate stalactite carving (known as muquarnas).

- Another feature is the decoration in stone and faience. The Seljuk design program combines intricate stone carving and colorful glazed ceramic decoration in a palette of turquoise blue, cobalt blue, black and white. Design elements include calligraphy, polychrome bands of stone, vegetal and geometric patterns, and human and animal figures. Decoration on Seljuk monuments was used in moderation, and was concentrated around the main door or the sides of the entrance, or, in the case of mosques, on the minarets or domes. The exuberance and color of the stone sculpture and tile work lightened the severe appearance of the plain stone walls.

- An important element used in Seljuk building construction is the iwan, a large vaulted chamber left open at one end. The iwan provided shelter and allowed contact with the outdoors. Buildings could have 1, 2, 3, or 4 iwans around a central courtyard.

- The dome, employed in Middle Eastern cultures since Assyrian times, is another distinctive feature of Seljuk architecture. The dome was supported by squinches or pendentives in a peculiar triangular shape, known as "Turkish triangles". The interior face of the dome was decorated with tiles or glazed bricks.

- As opposed to the brick architecture of the Iranians and Byzantines, the walls of Seljuk buildings are made of rubble or rough stone which was then faced with large blocks of beautifully dressed stone, laid with great accuracy. Building materials were readily available from the rich stone quarries in western Anatolia and the extensive limestone quarries in the central plateau region. There were numerous clay deposits for the making tiles as well.
BUILDING TYPES

The Anatolian Seljuks built the following types of structures :

  • Mosques (both the larger "ulu" (great) mosques and the smaller "mescit" neighborhood mosques
  • Medreses (buildings for higher education in the sciences, astronomy or religion)
  • Hospitals (şifahane) which could also be combined with a medical school
  • Caravansarais (hans)
  • Tomb towers (kumbet)
  • Palaces and pavilions
  • Bridges
  • Military constructions (castles, fortresses, city walls)
  • Civil construction and urban infrastructure
  • Baths
  • Dervish lodges (tekke)



 
Last edited:
Jan 2012
793
#33
1. The fair thing of those you refer is that the thread is not about the double headed eagle.
2. The symbol that appears to Seljuck art about 1055 - 1058. Then the source you preserve, claim without any proof that is because of Seljuck that spread it to Europe. So I preserved two elements, one stone slab with Double-Headed Eagle from Beroe (StaraZagora), 10th-11th century, and one image to manuscript from Mont Saint-Michel, France from 10th century that shows that already existed to Europe at this period.
3. Seljucks at this period were already muslims, fight for muslim faith. As muslims can not have zoomorfical appearance to their flags, signs, sculpture , painting etc at this period 11 th cenury.
Zoomorphic appearance sculpture is prohibited to islam (as also human appearance to art is prohibited to islam> at least for that period of 11th century), as also the motives that existed to islamic countries (to some plates etc) it is possible that have been made from local christians/no muslim artists or rarely from imported roman/byzantines or armenians. [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aniconism_in_Islam]Aniconism in Islam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]
Double headed eagle, is not imported from Seljucks to Europe, as this exist before invade to Anatolia. [there also a needed research for Arsakides about it's use, and many results of aniconic muslim Seljucks 'official use' adoption from 1058 needed more research Double-headed eagle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]
4. Seljucks adopted at most Iranian's artistic influence. To Asia Minor/Anatolia are known Seljuck monuments made by local Anatolian christian architects, like the Sivas (Sevastia) Gökmedrese architect who is of Armenian origin.
5. Prior to its common known officially use in the Byzantine period, the double-headed eagle had been used by others civilizations too.
6. As 'Temple of time' refer : The oldest double-headed eagle symbol can be found in the archaeological remains of the Hittite civilization.
7. Also well refer to the decoration in type and style of Seljuck architecture etc. as you refer to FEATURES OF SELJUK ARCHITECTURE.

So, That is I refer is 2 basic things.
A. That before Seljucks come to Anatolia, the symbol existed already (examples> to Beroe at Balkans and to Mont Saint-Michel (France) about 1000 A.D. so that show that already existed to Europe, and not Seljucks spread it.)
B. At this period exist aniconism to the islamic countries. Aniconism in Islam is a proscription in Islam against the creation of images of sentient living beings. To some cases christian/non muslim artists make some images to plates, palaces etc Frescoes and reliefs of humans and animals adorned palaces of the Umayyad era, as on the famous Mshatta Facade now in Berlin, so at up to 750 but not after. Even to Roman/byzantine iconoclasm period have started.
Figurative miniatures in books occur later in most Islamic countries, though somewhat less in Arabic-speaking areas. The human figure is central to the Persian miniature and other traditions such as the Ottoman miniature and Mughal painting, and represents a good deal of the attractiveness of Islamic art for non-Muslims. But those after 12th century.
So while the symbol exist to Seljuck sculpture art , the question is the use of it as an official symbol of muslim Seljuck authority as preserved, is questionable, because muslims do not use at this period zoomorfic symbols or signs or flags, because this is prohibited of islam. So to art existed but as official original symbol/sign of a muslim authority as of Seljucks, is questionable. Only later to some islamic states this bypass.

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Alaeddin Mosque at Konya (Ikonion)



Alâeddin Mosque is the principal monument on the citadel of Konya, Turkey. The building served as the “Mosque of the Throne” for the Seljuq Sultans of Rum and contains the dynastic mausoleum. It was constructed in stages between the mid-12th and mid-13th centuries. Both the citadel and the mosque bear the name of sultan 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad I (Alâeddin Tepesi and Alâeddin Camii).

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The Mosque

Following typical Seljuq procedure, a Christian basilica on the site was converted into a mosque following the capture of the city in 1080.
Much of the building material and architectural ornament incorporated in later rebuilding, especially columns and capitals, was salvaged from this basilica and other nearby Byzantine structures.
Evidence of an early building program dates from the time of Mesud I.
An inscription dates the fine, ebony minbar to 1155; the minbar is the first dated example of Seljuq art in Anatolia.
The polychrome ceramic frame of the mihrab and the dome above may date to this period.
Kaykaus I began a major rebuilding program in 1219. He changed the main entrance from the west to the north, opposite the mihrab. He added a monumental façade on the north side, overlooking the city and facing the Seljuq palace. A marble tomb was begun in the courtyard. Kaykaus’ building was cut short by his death in the same year, only to be resumed thereafter by his brother and successor Kayqubad I. Kayqubad had several of his brother's inscriptions altered and claimed the improvements to the mosque for himself. In 1235 he added a large room, supported by forty-two columns, to the east of the mihrab.
The minaret, the marble mihrab (1891), and the eastern door, through which most visitors enter the mosque, date from the Ottoman period.
The eastern wing of the mosque, constructed with re-used Byzantine and Hellenistic columns, has a unique openness and spaciousness.



Sultans buried in the Mosque

Alaeddin Mosque in an 1849 engraving
The courtyard of Alâeddin Mosque encloses two monumental mausolea or türbe. According to an inscription on the façade, Kilij Arslan II built the decahedral tomb with the conical roof.[4] This mausoleum became the burial place of the Seljuq dynasty and houses the sarcophagi of eight of the Seljuq sultans of Rum:

Mesud I (d. 1156)
Kilij Arslan II (d. 1196)
Süleymanshah II (d. 1204)
Kaykhusraw I (d. 1210)
Kayqubad I (d. 1236)
Kaykhusraw II (d. 1246)
Kilij Arslan IV (d. 1266)
Kaykhusraw III (d. 1283).

The second mausoleum was begun by Kaykaus I but left unfinished at the time of the sultan’s death (d. 1219). The tomb is octagonal and constructed from marble. This unfinished mausoleum is known as Adsız Türbe, or the "Anonymous Mausoleum," since the names of those buried within are unknown. Mummified corpses are on view. [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaeddin_Mosque"]Alaeddin Mosque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

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Interior

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Mihrab

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Dome

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Minbar

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Inscription

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Gate

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Last edited:
Jan 2012
793
#36
Great pictures Anax.Incredible stuff indeed..I love Turkish history..
Thank you Camoka. I love people, I love history.

People of Anatolia are of the best, warm, having great hospitality and good sense of humor. Of course there some exceptions, but it happens as in any other place of planet.

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Mar 2012
1,171
Magdeburg
#40
Seljuqs fused iranian,armenian architectures and added their own turkic symbolism & style. There is even speculation that khazars had actually had their own architecture that is completely lost today due to the kievan rus&other slavic and mongol invasions, of which seljuqs heavily adopted (seljuqs used to serve khazarians before establishing their own kingdom).
 

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