Astronomical observations recorded in Vedic Literature & their Date

Aatreya

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Dec 2014
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That is why I said 'hazily'. And if you can understand it, the reason is this:

"According to the sacrificial terminology the 4th day before Vishuvan or the central day of the yearly satra is called the Abhijit day. “In the sixth month,” observes Dr. Haug, “there are three Abhiplava, shalahas (six days’s periods) and one Prishthya shalaha. This makes up the first 24 days of the sixth month. The following days are thus enumerated: the Abhijit day, the three svarasaman days and the Vishuvan, or the central day which stands quite apart.” Thus if we exclude the Vishuvan day, as standing apart by itself, this gives us four days, and with the two days — Atiratra and Chaturvimsha — which are taken up by the initial ceremonies of the satra, we make up the shalaha wanted to complete the six months. The Abhijit day thus falls on the fourth day before the Vishuvan.

Now if Abhijit day be supposed to be named after the Nakshatra of that name (i.e., when the sun is in Abhijit) then the Vishuvan, or the autumnal equinox must fall four days — or as the sun travels over about 1° of the ecliptic each day, 4°— after the asterism of Abhijit; and it can be shown by astronomical calculation that, with Aditi or Punarvasu at the vernal equinox to commence the sacrifice, we get nearly the same result. In the Surya Siddhanta (viii. 3 table) the longitude of Punarvasu is said to be 93°, while that of Abhijit is 266° 40', that is in other words, Abhijit would be about 6° behind the autumnal equinox or Vishuvan, if we suppose the vernal equinox to exactly coincide with Punarvasu. With the vernal equinox in Punarvasu there is again no other Nakshatra nearer to or at the autumnal equinox to mark the Vishuvan day.

We can, therefore, now understand why Abhijit, which is so far away from the ecliptic, should have been included in the old list of the Nakshatras. It marked the approach of the Vishuvan in the primitive sacrificial calendar, but when it ceased to be used for that purpose owing to the falling back of seasons, it was naturally dropped from the list of the Nakshatras, as it was far away from the Zodiac. If Bentley's suggestion about Mula and Jyeshtha be correct, this must have been done at the time when the vernal equinox was in Orion. But be that as it may, it will, I think, be clear from the above that the position of the Abhijit day in the sacrificial literature fully supports the tradition about Aditi, the presiding deity of Punarvasu having discovered the commencement of the sacrifice. Aditi at this time must have also separated the Devayana from the Pitriyana and thus may have been appropriately called the mother of the Devas ( Rig. x. 72. 5).; If was from her that the Adityas were born (Rig. x. 72. 8; Shat, Br. iii. 1. 3. 2.), or the sun commenced his yearly course."
B.G.Tilak, "Orion or the Researches into the Antiquity of Vedas" (Page 215)​

Why do you keep reposting Tilak's work? There is only one reference to the word Punarvasu in Rig Veda and that does not mean a star. So what is the "hazy" reference of the star Punarvasu that you are claiming.

Did Vedic people (including Rig Veda) know about the stars? Yes, certainly they did. But to blatantly claim:

1) That the star is mentioned in Rig Veda
2) That the hymn was talking about the star and Into-European movement
3) That the Vedic people were not able to see the stars in India in that age and so they must have been in Arctic

These things classify as "intellectually dishonest" arguments.
 

Aatreya

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Dec 2014
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Apparently, you do not know much about Vedic astronomy. Immediately after Punarvasu, the Vedic calendar shifted to Mrigashiras m(around 4,000 BCE), and we have more than enough evidence of that. Tilak himself admits that the reference is not very solid. But then why was Aditi mentioned as the mother of Adityas? And the one who found the 'satra' (sacrificial calandar) for the 'devas', when they had forgotten what to do and when? Now, if you do not find a very clear mention of that old event, is that surprising? There is mention of that in later literature too (Shatapatha Brahmana, Taittiriya Aranyaka and Brahman).
Aditi was mentioned as the mother of AdityAs just as PrajApati was mentioned as the father of DEvAs.

OK, for a moment let's assume that the Vedic calendar shifted from Punarvasu to Mrigashiras around 4000 BCE. So what? What has that got anything to do with Arctic?
 

Aupmanyav

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Jun 2014
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Why do you keep re-posting Tilak's work? There is only one reference to the word Punarvasu in Rig Veda and that does not mean a star. So what is the "hazy" reference of the star Punarvasu that you are claiming.
It is not because of the mention of Punarvasu in RigVeda, it is about the mention of Aditi, who is the deity of the asterism of Punarvasu. And that of mention of both in the later literature as well as that of Abhijit and the position of Vishuvan, the central day of the 'satra' (sacrificial year).
OK, for a moment let's assume that the Vedic calendar shifted from Punarvasu to Mrigashiras around 4000 BCE. So what? What has that got anything to do with Arctic?
True. That has nothing to do with Arctic. That has to do with the antiquity of RigVeda.
For the 'Arctic Home', there are other reasons, four as I have always mentioned: 1. Seven sons of Aditi and the eighth born unformed. 2. Atiratra extending from two months to a maximum of 100 days. 3. A dawn extending to 30 days. 4. Presence of Navagwahas and Dashagwahas, priests who completed their 'satra' in nine or ten months. In Avesta, there is a mention of even the 'haptagu' (those who had a seven month cycle of sacrifice).
Antiquity gives time to Indo-Europeans to wander over Earth. If they were around for upward of 6,000 years, they may have traveled all over, Southern and Northern Europe, Altai region, India, Iraq and Iran - in that order starting from the Yamanaya region (Seroglazovka culture - 7,000 BCE).
 
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Aatreya

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Dec 2014
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It is not because of the mention of Punarvasu in RigVeda, it is about the mention of Aditi, who is the deity of the asterism of Punarvasu. And that of mention of both in the later literature as well as that of Abhijit and the position of Vishuvan, the central day of the 'satra' (sacrificial year).
True. That has nothing to do with Arctic. That has to do with the antiquity of RigVeda.
For the 'Arctic Home', there are other reasons, four as I have always mentioned: 1. Seven sons of Aditi and the eighth born unformed. 2. Atiratra extending from two months to a maximum of 100 days. 3. A dawn extending to 30 days. 4. Presence of Navagwahas and Dashagwahas, priests who completed their 'satra' in nine or ten months. In Avesta, there is a mention of even the 'haptagu' (those who had a seven month cycle of sacrifice).
Antiquity gives time to Indo-Europeans to wander over Earth. If they were around for upward of 6,000 years, they may have traveled all over, Southern and Northern Europe, Altai region, India, Iraq and Iran - in that order starting from the Yamanaya region (Seroglazovka culture - 7,000 BCE).
Let's address your supporting arguments now.

1. Aditi the name and the concept is not an astronomical one. Diti means one that is divided or one that lessens while Aditi means one that is not divided or one that does not lessen. You could compare this with martya and amartya. The Adityas are different manifestations of Aditi and that is why the name is a derivative of Aditi.Similarly Daitya is a derivative or manifestation of Diti. If Aditi was the deity of Punarvasu, there is definitely one possible interpretation that Aditi being the source of all divinity would be the deity of the head of asterisms, Punarvasu. But as you said, since the head of asterisms changed over ages, did the deity also change? So the point to be noted is that everything in Vedas is driven by the divinities who drive the earthly existence, the existence of other worlds that could be seen or imagined, etc.. A reference to stars was certainly an astronomical observation but that did drive the divinities. Whether or not the mention of Punarvasu in other Vedas indicates the timeline of Vedas, I cannot say for sure. But the mention of the river that dried at some point in time and geography around it is a more reliable indicator of the time and place of Vedic people.

2. The connection between eight sons of Aditi (with one born unformed) has no Arctic relationship either. What are the Adityas mentioned in Rig Veda, and how are they connected to Arctic?

3. Atiratra is a sacrifice that extends beyond a night and spans across days. The concept of day and night is throughout the world and so to let your imaginations run wild to call it an Arctic sacrifice is laughable.

4. Dawn does not extend to 30 days. The meaning of those phrases meant dawn "recurring" for thirty days meaning a month, or in some places mentioned as "recurring" until eternity. Interpret the hymns in a wrong way and lo, you have shifted the geography of the sages by 6000 miles or more!

5. Navagwa and Dashagwa are exactly that - priests who were very accomplished to finish the one year satra in 9 or 10 months. Note that the time period is in terms of lunar cycles, not based on Arctic/Antarctic dawns. Yes there is mention of Saptagu in several hymns of Rig Veda as much as there is a mention of haptagu in Avesta. So?

6. The Arctic people neither wandered all over earth nor did they do any sacrifice. Those things happened and continue to happen in the Indian subcontinent. They started from the Saraswati region to disperse into various regions you just mentioned. Yes, Rig Veda composed in India is indeed very ancient.
 

Aupmanyav

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Jun 2014
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New Delhi, India
Let's address your supporting arguments now.

1. If Aditi was the deity of Punarvasu, there is definitely one possible interpretation that Aditi being the source of all divinity would be the deity of the head of asterisms, Punarvasu. But as you said, since the head of asterisms changed over ages, did the deity also change?
2. The connection between eight sons of Aditi (with one born unformed) has no Arctic relationship either. What are the Adityas mentioned in Rig Veda, and how are they connected to Arctic?
3. Atiratra is a sacrifice that extends beyond a night and spans across days. The concept of day and night is throughout the world and so to let your imaginations run wild to call it an Arctic sacrifice is laughable.
4. Dawn does not extend to 30 days. The meaning of those phrases meant dawn "recurring" for thirty days meaning a month, or in some places mentioned as "recurring" until eternity. Interpret the hymns in a wrong way and lo, you have shifted the geography of the sages by 6000 miles or more!
5. Navagwa and Dashagwa are exactly that - priests who were very accomplished to finish the one year satra in 9 or 10 months. Note that the time period is in terms of lunar cycles, not based on Arctic/Antarctic dawns. Yes there is mention of Saptagu in several hymns of Rig Veda as much as there is a mention of haptagu in Avesta. So?
6. The Arctic people neither wandered all over earth nor did they do any sacrifice. Those things happened and continue to happen in the Indian subcontinent. They started from the Saraswati region to disperse into various regions you just mentioned. Yes, Rig Veda composed in India is indeed very ancient.
1. The deities of the asterisms never changed. The question is why Aditi, the mother of suns, Adityas, was the deity of possibly the oldest and the first asterism in Aryan calendar? Why was Aditi considered the 'Satra' and the 'Samvatsara'? Why was it said that Aditi is 'ubhaya-taru', double ended, and that the yajnas began and ended with her? The next change ws Agrahayana or Mrigashiras (Orion) and we have ample evidence for that.
2. Adityas in RigVeda: "Thus in IX, 114, 3, seven Âdityas and seven priests are mentioned together, though the names of the different suns are not given therein. In II, 27 1, Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuna, Daksha and Amsha are mentioned by name as so many different Âdityas but the seventh is not named. This omission does not, however, mean much, as the septenary character of the sun is quite patent from the fact that he is called saptâshva (seven-horsed, in V, 45, 9), and his “seven-wheeled” chariot is said to be drawn by “seven bay steeds” (I, 50, 8 ), or by a single horse “with seven names” in I, 164, 2. The Atharva Veda also speaks of “the seven bright rays of the sun” (VII, 107, 1); and the epithet Âditya, as applied to the sun in the RigVeda, is rendered more clearly by Aditeh putrah (Aditi’s son) in A.V. XIII, 2, 9."

"Again though the existence of seven suns may be explained on this hypothesis, yet it fails to account for the death of the eighth sun, for the legend of Aditi (Rig. X, 72, 8-9) tells us, “Of the eight sons of Aditi, who were born from her body, she approached the gods with seven and cast out Mârtânda. With seven sons Aditi approached (the gods) in the former age (pûrvyam yugam); she brought thither Mârtânda again for birth and death.”

"The Aranyaka (Taittiriya Aranyaka, 1.7) then proceeds to give the names of the eight sons, as Mitra, Varuna, Dhâtṛi, Aryaman, Amsha, Bhaga, Indra and Vivasvat. But no further explanation is added, nor are we told which of these eight sons represented Mârtânda. There is, however, another passage in the Âranaka (I, 7, 1-6) which throws some light on the nature of these Âdityas. The names of the suns here given are different. They are: Aroga, Bhrâja, Patara, Patanga, Svarnara, Jyotishîmat, Vibhâsa and Kashyapa."

"Sâyana give us no clue to it, butt simply observes “the different features of different seasons cannot be accounted for, except by supposing them to have been caused by different suns; therefore, different suns must exist in different regions.”* But this explanation is open to the objection (actually raised by Vaishampâyana), that we shall have, on this theory, to assume the existence of thousands of suns as the characteristics of the seasons are so numerous. The Âranyaka admits, to a certain extent the force of this objection, but says, "Ashtau to vyavasitâh", meaning that the number eight is settled by the text of the scripture, and there is no further arguing about it."


Of course, the number of Adityas then increased to ten as the Aryans migrated Southwards and finally to twelve.
3. That is your modern concept asbout 'Atri-Ratra'. In 'purve yugam', 'Atri-Ratra' extended to full two months, one night after the other, with no sun on the horizen for all those days. That was the time when 'Ashwamedha Yajna' was conducted to invigorate Indra and his horse to fight the demons of darkness, the Dasas.
4. I have given you Tilak's reasoning many times. I reproduce it again. These are not the only reasons, more can be found in his book in the chapter devoted to "Vedic Dawns".

"The first hint, regarding the long duration of the Vedic dawn, is obtained from the Aitareya Brâhmana, IV, 7. Before commencing the Gavâm-ayana sacrifice, there is a long recitation of not less than a thousand verses, to be recited by the Hotṛi priest. This Ashvinashastra, as it is called, is addressed to Agni, Ushas and Ashvins, which deities rule at the end of the night and the commencement of the day. It is the longest recitation to be recited by the Hotṛi and the time for reciting it is after midnight, when “the darkness of the night is about to be relieved by the light of the dawn” (Nir. XII, I; Ashv. Shr. Sutra, VI, 5, 8). The same period of time is referred to also in the RigVeda, VII, 67, 2 and 3. The shastra is so long, that the Hotṛi, who has to recite it, is directed to refresh himself by drinking beforehand melted butter after sacrificing thrice a little of it (Ait. Br. IV, 7; Ashv.
Shr. Sûtra; VI, 5, 3). “He ought to eat ghee,” observes the Aitareya Brâhmana, “before he commences repeating. Just as in this world a cart or a carriage goes well if smeared (with oil), thus his repeating proceeds well if he be smeared with ghee (by eating it).” It is evident that if such a recitation has to be finished before the rising of the sun, either the Hotṛi must commence his task soon after midnight when it is dark, or the duration of the dawn must then have been sufficiently long to enable the priest to finish the recitation in time after commencing to recite it on the first appearance of light on the horizon as directed.

The first supposition is out of the question, as it is expressly laid down that the shastra, is not to be recited until the darkness of the night is relieved by light. So between the first appearance of light and the rise of the sun, there must have been, in those days, time enough to recite the long laudatory song of not less than a thousand verses. Nay, in the Taittirîya Samhitâ (II, 1, 10, 3) we are told that sometimes the recitation of the shastra though commenced at the proper time, ended long before sunrise, and in that case, the Samhitâ requires that a certain animal sacrifice should be performed. Ashvalâyana directs that in such a case the recitation should be continued up to sunrise by reciting other hymns (Ashv. S.S. VI, 5, 8); while Âpastamba (S.S. XIV, 1 and 2), after mentioning the sacrifice referred to in the Taittirîya Samhitâ, adds that all the ten Mandalas of the RigVeda may be recited, if necessary, in such a case. It is evident from this that the actual rising of the sun above the horizon was a phenomenon often delayed beyond expectation, in those days and in several places in the Taittirîya Samhitâ (II, 1, 2, 4), we are told that the Devas had to perform a prâyaschitta because the sun did not shine as expected.

Another indication of the long duration of the dawn is furnished by the Taittirîya Samhitâ, VIII 2. 20. Seven oblations are here mentioned, one to Ushas one to Vyushti one to Udeshyat, one to Udyat, one to Uditâ one to Suvarga and one to Loka. Five of these are evidently intended for the dawn in its five forms. The Taittirîya Brâhmana (III, 8, 16, 4) explains the first two, viz., to Ushas and Vyushti, as referring to dawn and sunrise, or rather to night and day, for according to the Brâhmana “Ushas is night, and Vyushti is day.” But even though we may accept this as correct and we take Ushas and Vyushti to be the representatives of night and day because the former signalizes the end of the night and the latter the beginning of the day, still we have to account for three oblations, viz. one to the dawn about to rise (Udeshyat,) one to the rising dawn (Udyat), and one to the dawn that has risen (Uditâ) the first two of which are according to the Taittirîya Brâhmana, to be offered before the rising of the sun. Now the dawn in the tropical zone is so short that the three-fold distinction between the dawn that is about to rise, the dawn that is rising, and one that has risen or that is full-blown (vi-ushti) is a distinction without a difference. We must, therefore, hold that the dawn which admitted such manifold division for the practical purpose of sacrifice, was a long dawn."

Now, do we have five divisions of our maximum one-hour dawn. Do we need to welcome the sun after reading thousand verses of Ashwinshastra + other hymns + the whole of RigVeda?

Continued ....
 
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Aupmanyav

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Jun 2014
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New Delhi, India
5. If they were finishing their ritual cycle in 7, 9 or 10 months, there must have been a reason for that. So too for the old Roman year of 10 months (304 days). The reason was that the day lasted (meaning the sun was visible in the sky only for that period of time. In the rest of the time Sun was sleeping in the lap of Nriritti as mentioned in the RigVeda.

"By contrast, that the ocean which the sun is said to enter at the time of setting (X, 114, 4) is really an ocean underneath the earth. In I, 117, 5, the sun is described as sleeping in “the lap of Nir-riti,” and “dwelling in darkness”; while in 1, 164, 32 and 33, the sun is said to have traveled in the interior of heaven and earth and finally gone into Nir-riti."
6. The Indo-Europeans started from the Arctic regions during the ice-age, found refuge in Pontic steppes, from where they first spread Westward to Europe, then Northwards to Samara, Sintashta, Afanasovo, etc., and last ly Eastward to Oxus Valley, Sogdiana, Balkh, Herat; and from there to Indus valley and Iran."Out of India" theory has no acceptance other than with chau..... Hindus.

(All quotes from "Arctic Home in Vedas")​
 

Aatreya

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Dec 2014
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5. If they were finishing their ritual cycle in 7, 9 or 10 months, there must have been a reason for that. So too for the old Roman year of 10 months (304 days). The reason was that the day lasted (meaning the sun was visible in the sky only for that period of time. In the rest of the time Sun was sleeping in the lap of Nriritti as mentioned in the RigVeda.

"By contrast, that the ocean which the sun is said to enter at the time of setting (X, 114, 4) is really an ocean underneath the earth. In I, 117, 5, the sun is described as sleeping in “the lap of Nir-riti,” and “dwelling in darkness”; while in 1, 164, 32 and 33, the sun is said to have traveled in the interior of heaven and earth and finally gone into Nir-riti."
6. The Indo-Europeans started from the Arctic regions during the ice-age, found refuge in Pontic steppes, from where they first spread Westward to Europe, then Northwards to Samara, Sintashta, Afanasovo, etc., and last ly Eastward to Oxus Valley, Sogdiana, Balkh, Herat; and from there to Indus valley and Iran."Out of India" theory has no acceptance other than with chau..... Hindus.

(All quotes from "Arctic Home in Vedas")​
Your foolish theories have no end in sight. If the Vedic Rishis could perform Atiratra that spanned across day and nights, then the Sun resting in the lap of the darkness for X days or X months should have had no impact. Instead the recurring theme of Rig Veda is about the cyclical daily occurrence of day and night, and the very common word used is "shashwattha" meaning eternal. Torturing texts and making illogical extrapolations to support a crappy hypothesis has been a hallmark of AMT folks.

It is only a matter of time before this godawful hypothesis bites dust.
 

Aupmanyav

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Jun 2014
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New Delhi, India
You are not very familiar with Geography. You do not understand what day and night mean in an Arctic locale.

"Captain Pim, quoted by Dr. Warren, thus describes the Polar year:
"On the 16th of March the sun rises, preceded by a long dawn of forty-seven days, namely, from the 29th January, when the first glimmer of light appears. On the 25th of September the sun sets, and after a twilight of forty-eight days, namely, on the 13th November, darkness reigns supreme, so far as the sun is concerned, for seventy-six days followed by one long period of light, the sun remaining above the horizon one hundred and ninety-four days. The year, therefore, is thus divided at the Pole: 194 days sun; 76 darkness; 47 days dawn; 48 twilight.”

"Premising that the splendors of the Polar dawn are indescribable, Dr. Warren proceeds:
“First of all appears low in the horizon of the night-sky a scarcely visible flush of light. At first it only makes a few stars’ light seem a trifle fainter, but after a little it is seen to be increasing, and to be moving laterally along the yet dark horizon. Twenty-four hours later it has made a complete circuit around the observer, and is causing a larger number of stars to pale. Soon the widening light glows with the luster of ‘Orient pearl.’ Onward it moves in its stately rounds, until the pearly whiteness burns into ruddy rose-light, fringed with purple and gold. Day after day, as we measure days, this splendid panorama circles on, and, according as atmospheric conditions and, clouds present more or less favorable conditions of reflection, kindles and fades, kindles and fades, - fades only to kindle next time yet more brightly as the still hidden sun comes nearer and nearer his point of emergence. At length, when for two long months such prophetic displays have been filling the whole heavens with these increscent and revolving splendors, the sun begins to emerge from his long retirement, and to display himself once more to human vision. After one or two circuits, during which his dazzling upper limb grows to a full-orbed disk, he clears all hill-tops of the distant horizon, and for six full months circles around and around the world’s great axis in full view, suffering no night to fall upon his favored home-land at the Pole. Even when at last he sinks again from view he covers his retreat with a repetition of the deepening and fading splendors which filled his long dawning, as if in these pulses of more and more distant light he were signaling back to the forsaken world the promises and prophecies of an early return.”

@ Even the Polar night, Ati-Ratra, had its day and night. The inhabitants of that region know that by the motion of stars and regulate their daily activity in that way.

In RigVeda II.28.9, a hymn to Varuna, the poet says:
अव्युष्टा इन नु भूयसीरुषास आ नो जीवान वरुण तासु शाधि ll
avyuṣṭā in nu bhūyasīruṣāsas ā no jīvān varuṇa tāsu śādhi ||
Verily, many dawns (have) not fully (vi) flashed forth. O Varuna! direct that we may be alive during them.

What are these dawns which have not fully flashed forth? And why is the poet not sure whether he will be alive through those dawns? Do we fear that we may not live through a dawn? The fact is that it was a long dawn after a doubly long dark cold Arctic night. And the food for men as well as cattle was scarce. That is why the poet was apprehensive. The original home of the Indo-Europeans was the Arctic regions.

"Thus in the second line of I, 92, 1, the Dawns are compared to a number of “warriors” (dhrishnavâh) and in the third verse of the same hymn they are likened to “women (nârîh) active in their occupations.” They are said to appear on the horizon like “waves of waters” (apâm na urmayah) in VI, 64, 1, or like “pillars planted at a sacrifice” (adhvareshu svaravah) in IV, 51, 2. We are again told that they work like “men arrayed” (visho na yuktah), or advance like “troops of cattle” (gavam na sargâh) in VII, 79, 2, and IV, 51, 8, respectively. They are described as all “alike” (sadrishih) and are said to be of “one mind” (sañjânante), or “acting harmoniously” IV, 51, 6, and VII, 76, 5. In the last verse the poet again informs us that they “do not strive against each other” (mithah na yatante), though they live jointly in the “same enclosure” (samâne urve). Finally in X, 88, 18, the poet distinctly asks the question, “How many fires, how many suns and how many dawns (ushâsah) are there?” If the Dawn were addressed in plural simply out of respect for the deity, where was the necessity of informing us that they do not quarrel though collected in the same place? The expressions “waves
of waters,” or “men arrayed” &c., are again too definite to be explained away as honorific."

Lokmanya Tilak was too thorough in his research for likes of us to be able to find a mistake. If you need more proof, then read his book. :)
 

Aupmanyav

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Jun 2014
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New Delhi, India
Actually, RigVeda gives us the exact date when the sun went down the horizon. It was the fortieth of Sharadi. That is the fortieth day from the autumnal equinox or 10th in the eighth month. That would correspond to October 10, when the verse says Indra found Shambara, one of the demons of darkness, in his fort. RigVeda is exact history. That is why Martanda was considered to be unformed while seven others were fully formed.
 

Aatreya

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Dec 2014
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You are not very familiar with Geography. You do not understand what day and night mean in an Arctic locale.

"Captain Pim, quoted by Dr. Warren, thus describes the Polar year:
"On the 16th of March the sun rises, preceded by a long dawn of forty-seven days, namely, from the 29th January, when the first glimmer of light appears. On the 25th of September the sun sets, and after a twilight of forty-eight days, namely, on the 13th November, darkness reigns supreme, so far as the sun is concerned, for seventy-six days followed by one long period of light, the sun remaining above the horizon one hundred and ninety-four days. The year, therefore, is thus divided at the Pole: 194 days sun; 76 darkness; 47 days dawn; 48 twilight.”

"Premising that the splendors of the Polar dawn are indescribable, Dr. Warren proceeds:
“First of all appears low in the horizon of the night-sky a scarcely visible flush of light. At first it only makes a few stars’ light seem a trifle fainter, but after a little it is seen to be increasing, and to be moving laterally along the yet dark horizon. Twenty-four hours later it has made a complete circuit around the observer, and is causing a larger number of stars to pale. Soon the widening light glows with the luster of ‘Orient pearl.’ Onward it moves in its stately rounds, until the pearly whiteness burns into ruddy rose-light, fringed with purple and gold. Day after day, as we measure days, this splendid panorama circles on, and, according as atmospheric conditions and, clouds present more or less favorable conditions of reflection, kindles and fades, kindles and fades, - fades only to kindle next time yet more brightly as the still hidden sun comes nearer and nearer his point of emergence. At length, when for two long months such prophetic displays have been filling the whole heavens with these increscent and revolving splendors, the sun begins to emerge from his long retirement, and to display himself once more to human vision. After one or two circuits, during which his dazzling upper limb grows to a full-orbed disk, he clears all hill-tops of the distant horizon, and for six full months circles around and around the world’s great axis in full view, suffering no night to fall upon his favored home-land at the Pole. Even when at last he sinks again from view he covers his retreat with a repetition of the deepening and fading splendors which filled his long dawning, as if in these pulses of more and more distant light he were signaling back to the forsaken world the promises and prophecies of an early return.”

@ Even the Polar night, Ati-Ratra, had its day and night. The inhabitants of that region know that by the motion of stars and regulate their daily activity in that way.

In RigVeda II.28.9, a hymn to Varuna, the poet says:
अव्युष्टा इन नु भूयसीरुषास आ नो जीवान वरुण तासु शाधि ll
avyuṣṭā in nu bhūyasīruṣāsas ā no jīvān varuṇa tāsu śādhi ||
Verily, many dawns (have) not fully (vi) flashed forth. O Varuna! direct that we may be alive during them.

What are these dawns which have not fully flashed forth? And why is the poet not sure whether he will be alive through those dawns? Do we fear that we may not live through a dawn? The fact is that it was a long dawn after a doubly long dark cold Arctic night. And the food for men as well as cattle was scarce. That is why the poet was apprehensive. The original home of the Indo-Europeans was the Arctic regions.

"Thus in the second line of I, 92, 1, the Dawns are compared to a number of “warriors” (dhrishnavâh) and in the third verse of the same hymn they are likened to “women (nârîh) active in their occupations.” They are said to appear on the horizon like “waves of waters” (apâm na urmayah) in VI, 64, 1, or like “pillars planted at a sacrifice” (adhvareshu svaravah) in IV, 51, 2. We are again told that they work like “men arrayed” (visho na yuktah), or advance like “troops of cattle” (gavam na sargâh) in VII, 79, 2, and IV, 51, 8, respectively. They are described as all “alike” (sadrishih) and are said to be of “one mind” (sañjânante), or “acting harmoniously” IV, 51, 6, and VII, 76, 5. In the last verse the poet again informs us that they “do not strive against each other” (mithah na yatante), though they live jointly in the “same enclosure” (samâne urve). Finally in X, 88, 18, the poet distinctly asks the question, “How many fires, how many suns and how many dawns (ushâsah) are there?” If the Dawn were addressed in plural simply out of respect for the deity, where was the necessity of informing us that they do not quarrel though collected in the same place? The expressions “waves
of waters,” or “men arrayed” &c., are again too definite to be explained away as honorific."

Lokmanya Tilak was too thorough in his research for likes of us to be able to find a mistake. If you need more proof, then read his book. :)
Tilak was a minion in this field. We'll come to your Arctic cold points a little later.