- Feb 2010
- Canary Islands-Spain
All the cities so far seem along the coast, or near trade routes to the north as part of the trans-saharan trade. Other than the Great Zimbwe, were there any cities in the interior not associated with either than trade on the coast or the trans-saharan trade in the north? Benin seems to be one, possibly, and Mbanza Kongo, but those were still relatively close to the coast. I see there was the kingdom of Luba on your map, did it have a capital city, perhaps?
The map is wrong. Lumba kingdom was founded at 1585, Lunda at 1665.
I was as well interested in inner cities, developed by complex societies based on excedents and hyerarchies. Mostly failed, with one remarkable exception:
Khami Khami Ruins National Monument - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
A city of 108 hectares, closely related to Great Zimbabwe and belonging to the Torwa Dynasty. Other sytes related:
These other cities are http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/kingdoms-southern-africa-thulamela: Dzata, Thulamela (2,000 people) and most important Mapungubwe (modern South Africa) Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
Gokomore, inland, is an archeological syte and a settlemet of characteristics unknown to me, but seem to be both, very early and very little.
In short, East Africa city network developed first at coastal areas, probably due to settlement of Arab and Malai people at first, then and more consistently by Swahili people.
The only inland area of urban development, linked to growing social complexity, is that of around Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi.