British Empire Without India

Jul 2012
3,111
Dhaka
#61
How can linen and wool produced in the UK, in the '17th century' or whenever, have been more expensive than imported hand made cotton fabrics from India? It doesn't make sense. Wool and linen were huge industries in the UK, even before industrialisation. Importing cotton fabric, of 'extraordinary quality and exquisite beauty' , was a costly endeavour.
Excerpt from the link on post #19:
But it was not only in the field of high qulity cloth that Bengal had a predominant position; it was also the main Production centre of ordinary and medium quality textiles. Long before the advent of the Europeans, the Asian merchants from different parts of the continent and Indian merchants from various regions of the country derived a lucrative trade in Bengal textiles.
More on Indian textiles in Europe: When Cotton was Banned: Indian Cotton Textiles in Early Modern England | FifteenEightyFour | Cambridge University Press
 
Last edited:
Sep 2015
1,676
England
#62
The blog post is missing key context, and is literally, quite literally, a fabrication: the wiki talks about how cotton goods made up 95% of all imports from the East. Okay. If they are banned, if their import ceases, as the article claims, trade would be more just significantly reduced, yes. Common sense might tell us, that the E.I.C., the Dutch version etc, would have put out of business, thoroughly and entirely.

However:

'...cotton prints were introduced to Britain by the East India Company in the 1690s. Imports of calicoes, cheap cotton fabrics from Kozikode, then known as Calicut, in India, found a mass market among the poor. By 1721 these calicoes threatened British manufacturers, and Parliament passed the Calico Act that banned calicoes for clothing or domestic purposes. In 1774 the act was repealed...'
 
Sep 2015
1,676
England
#63
The fact that Grigio Riello is Professor of 'Global History & Culture' sort of says it all really. Post modernist invention and nonsense. 'The Very Short Introduction to: Globalisation' by the Oxford University Press was written by a Professor as well, out in Hawaii; he explicitly advocates post modernism in the first few pages, i kid ye not!
 
Sep 2015
1,676
England
#64
The fact that Grigio Riello is Professor of 'Global History & Culture' sort of says it all really. Post modernist invention and nonsense.
The Encyclopedia Britannica essentially says about the same: 'Company profits from India came first from the familiar spices, but after 1660, Indian textiles outstripped these in importance. Cheap cloths, mainly cottons, found a mass market among the English poorer classes, though dainty fabrics for the wealthy also paid well. Imports of calicoes (inexpensive cotton fabrics from Calicut) to England grew so large that in 1721 Parliament passed the Calico Act to protect English manufacturers, forbidding the use of calico in England for apparel or for domestic purposes (repeal of the act in 1774 coincided with inventions of mechanical devices that made possible English cloth production in successful competition with Eastern fabrics).'
 
Sep 2015
1,676
England
#65
The 1721 legislation prof Riello of warwick university refers so is apparently as follows:

'Act to preserve and encourage the Woollen and Silk Manufactures of this Kingdom, and for more effectual employing the Poor, by prohibiting the Use and Wear of all printed, painted, stained or dyed Callicoes, in Apparel, Houshold Stuff, Furniture or otherwise, after the twenty fifth Day of December One thousand seven hundred and twenty two (except as is therein excepted) so far as relates to Goods made of Linen Yarn and Cotton Wool, manufactured in Great Britain.'

Cheap calico prints had become popular, because the East India Company imported this item from India during the 1690s and thereafter. Imports of cotton wool were 1.9mn pounds in 1700, and due to the legislation 1.5mn pounds by 1730, which was amended in 1735 (Public Act 9, Geo II, ch.4), and by 1764 3.9mn pounds. The cotton wool was imported and then printed in England during this period. The 'production volume for printed cloth in Lancashire in 1750 was estimated at 50,000 pieces of 30 yards' (Turnbull 1951). Due to machines developed in 1783 and 1785 output began to rapidly increase, and by 1850 was 20mn pieces.

India was the 4th largest cotton producer in the world by 1900.
 

Sindane

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
4,678
Europe
#67
"British colonization forced open the large Indian market to British goods, which could be sold in India without any tariffs or duties, compared to local Indian producers who were heavily taxed, while in Britain protectionist policies such as bans and high tariffs were implemented to restrict Indian textiles from being sold there, whereas raw cotton was imported from India without tariffs to British factories which manufactured textiles from Indian cotton and sold them back to the Indian market. British economic policies gave them a monopoly over India's large market and cotton resources.[4][5][6] India served as both a significant supplier of raw goods to British manufacturers and a large captive market for British manufactured goods.[7]"



At what dates was this happening?
One minute you talk about the 17th century, the next you seem to be quoting industrialisation in the 19th century. During industrialisation (UK) raw cotton was imported, to the UK industrial mills, from the USA, not India
 

M.S. Islam

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
3,111
Dhaka
#68
At what dates was this happening?
One minute you talk about the 17th century, the next you seem to be quoting industrialisation in the 19th century. During industrialisation (UK) raw cotton was imported, to the UK industrial mills, from the USA, not India
You quoted two posts that dealt with two different periods.The first quote clearly was regarding post colonization.

In the second quote, post #19 was referred to to point out that medium to coarse variety of fabrics were also produced in Bengal/India as well as fabrics of 'extraordinary quality and exquisite beauty'.

The final link addressed your query why
Indian fabrics was in demand in Britain even with availability of cheap linens.
 
Sep 2015
1,676
England
#69
You quoted two posts that dealt with two different periods.The first quote clearly was regarding post colonization.

In the second quote, post #19 was referred to to point out that medium to coarse variety of fabrics were also produced in Bengal/India as well as fabrics of 'extraordinary quality and exquisite beauty'.

The final link addressed your query why
Indian fabrics was in demand in Britain even with availability of cheap linens.
Clearly the E.I.C. introduced Indian goods in to England from about the 1690s, which threatened the employment of English weavers. Parliament passed protective measures thereby, but curiously repealed them in 1774. There had been no market for Indian goods in England until the E.I.C. began to import, Indian made goods, into the English market. This was brought to an end (apparently) after about 20-30 years, because it was the English weavers who were being put out of business, by the E.I.C. on behalf of Indian producers. At the same Indian cotton producers increased their export of raw cotton, overall, to England - quanties exported had doubled towards the 1750s. The 1800s is the next chapter in this story.
 

M.S. Islam

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
3,111
Dhaka
#70
Clearly the E.I.C. introduced Indian goods in to England from about the 1690s, which threatened the employment of English weavers. Parliament passed protective measures thereby, but curiously repealed them in 1774. There had been no market for Indian goods in England until the E.I.C. began to import, Indian made goods, into the English market. This was brought to an end (apparently) after about 20-30 years, because it was the English weavers who were being put out of business, by the E.I.C. on behalf of Indian producers. At the same Indian cotton producers increased their export of raw cotton, overall, to England - quanties exported had doubled towards the 1750s. The 1800s is the next chapter in this story.
The Portuguese started to bring in Indian fabrics into Europe since 1498 when Vasco da Gama first arrived in India. They had the monopoly until British and Dutch EICs cut into their trade in 1600 and 1602 respectively.

The Fabric of India: A Global Trade - Victoria and Albert Museum
 

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