Cannabis/Hashish usage in Islamic societies of the middle ages

Dec 2015
The usage of Cannabis dates back to 6000 bc, when Cannabis seeds were used for food in China. But also in religious societies such as a # of Muslim majority societies of the middle ages we can see that there was usage of Cannabis as well as Hashish.

AD900 - 1000 Islamic Scholars debate the pros and cons of eating hashish. Use spreads throughout Arabia.

1090 - 1256 In Khorasan, Persia, Hasan ibn al-Sabbah, the Old Man of the Mountain, recruits followers to commit assassinations. Legends develop around their supposed use of hashish. These legends are some of the earliest written tales of the discovery of the inebriating powers of cannabis and the supposed use of hashish.

Early 12th Century Hashish smoking very popular throughout the Middle East.

12th Century Cannabis is introduced in Egypt during the reign of the Ayyubid dynasty on the occasion of the flooding of Egypt by mystic devotees coming from Syria.

1155 - 1221 Persian legend of the Sufi master Sheik Haidar's of Khorasan's personal discovery of cannabis and it's subsequent spread to Iraq, Bahrain, Egypt and Syria. Another of the earliest written narratives of the use of cannabis as an inebriant.

13th Century The oldest monograph on hashish, Zahr al-'arish fi tahrim al-hashish, was written. It has since been lost.

13th Century Ibn al-Baytar of Spain provides a description of psychoactive cannabis.

13th Century
Arab traders bring cannabis to the Mozambique coast of Africa.

Hashish introduced to Iraq in the reign of Caliph Mustansir. (Rosenthal 1971)

AD1271 - 1295 Journeys of Marco Polo in which he gives second-hand reports of the story of Hasan ibn al-Sabbah and his "assassins" using hashish. First time reports of cannabis have been brought to the attention of Medieval Europe.

BBC NEWS | Programmes | Panorama | Timeline: the use of cannabis

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